Multinucleated giant cells with an osteoclast phenotype derived from caprine peripheral blood mononuclear cells
ABSTRACT Formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) by macrophage fusion is a typical cytopathic effect of lentiviral replication in caprine monocytes and MGC formation from cultured caprine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been considered to be diagnostic for small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection. In this study, formation of MGCs was observed after 7-14 days when PBMCs were cultured from healthy goats free from SRLV infection. These MGCs expressed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, integrin αVβ3, cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9 and were able to resorb bone in vitro in the absence of RANKL and macrophage colony stimulating factor, consistent with an osteoclast phenotype.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Patrizia d'amelio, Jun 30, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Enrico Bollo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Small ruminant lentivirus genotype E lacks the dUTPase subunit and vpr-like gene. Two strains (Roccaverano and Seui) with identical genetic organization have been described, with the env HV1-HV2 domains being the most divergent. Although dUTPase and vpr-like deletions have been involved in the RT fidelity in non dividing cells, both strains were able to replicate efficiently in blood derived macrophages (BDM), while virus production of E1 subtype was reduced or abrogated in replicating fibroblastic-like cells. The transcriptional activity of genotype E was similar in these two cellular populations. When viral pseudotypes were generated with the env of both viruses, Roccaverano pseudotype displayed a paranuclear localization on BDM, suggesting a different mechanism of entry. Polymorphic GAS and TAS sites in the U3 region, further suggest that a population different from classically activated macrophages can be infected by these viruses, opening new insights into lentiviruses with low or null pathogenic potential.Virology 02/2011; 410(1):88-95. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2010.10.031 · 3.28 Impact Factor
- Behavior therapy 03/2011; 42(1):143-9. DOI:10.1016/j.beth.2010.08.004 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Three field isolates of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) were derived from a mixed flock of goats and sheep certified for many years as free of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). The phylogenetic analysis of pol sequences permitted to classify these isolates as A4 subtype. None of the animals showed clinical signs of SRLV infection, confirming previous observations which had suggested that this particular subtype is highly attenuated, at least for goats. A quantitative real time PCR strategy based on primers and probes derived from a highly variable env region permitted us to classify the animals as uninfected, singly or doubly infected. The performance of different serological tools based on this classification revealed their profound inadequacy in monitoring animals infected with this particular SRLV subtype. In vitro, the isolates showed differences in their cytopathicity and a tendency to replicate more efficiently in goat than sheep cells, especially in goat macrophages. By contrast, in vivo, these viruses reached significantly higher viral loads in sheep than in goats. Both env subtypes infected goats and sheep with equal efficiency. One of these, however, reached significantly higher viral loads in both species. In conclusion, we characterized three isolates of the SRLV subtype A4 that efficiently circulate in a mixed herd of goats and sheep in spite of their apparent attenuation and a strict physical separation between goats and sheep. The poor performance of the serological tools applied indicates that, to support an SRLV eradication campaign, it is imperative to develop novel, subtype specific tools.Veterinary Microbiology 11/2012; 162(2-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.11.017 · 2.73 Impact Factor