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Accumulation and DNA damage in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 2 brominated flame-retardant mixtures, FireMaster® 550 and FireMaster® BZ-54

University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, Maryland 20688, USA.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.83). 03/2010; 29(3):722-9. DOI: 10.1002/etc.94
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Firemaster 550 and Firemaster BZ-54 are two brominated formulations that are in use as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Two major components of these mixtures are 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-ethylhexylbenzoate (TBB) and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (TBPH). Both have been measured in environmental matrices; however, scant toxicological information exists. The present study aimed to determine if these brominated flame-retardant formulations are bioavailable and adversely affect DNA integrity in fish. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were orally exposed to either FM 550, FM BZ54, or the nonbrominated form of TBPH, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) for 56 d and depurated (e.g., fed clean food) for 22 d. At several time points, liver and blood cells were collected and assessed for DNA damage. Homogenized fish tissues were extracted and analyzed on day 0 and day 56 to determine the residue of TBB and TBPH and the appearance of any metabolites using gas chromatography-electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS). Significant increases (p < 0.05) in DNA strand breaks from liver cells (but not blood cells) were observed during the exposure period compared with controls, although during depuration these levels returned to control. Both parent compounds, TBB and TBPH, were detected in tissues at approximately 1% of daily dosage along with brominated metabolites. The present study provides evidence for accumulation, metabolism, and genotoxicity of these new formulation flame retardants in fish and highlights the potential adverse effects of TBB- and TBPH-formulated fire retardants to aquatic species.

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    • "e of pollutants into the environment during recycling processes . BEH - TEBP could have the same source as EH - TBB in commercial mixtures . For example , Firemaster 550 consists of about 35% of EH - TBB and 15% of BEH - TEBP ( Bearr et al . , 2010 ; Chemtura , 2008 ) and Firemaster BZ - 54 consists of about 70% of EH - TBB and 30% of BEH - TEBP ( Bearr et al . , 2010 ) . On the other hand , BEH - TEBP also has other sources , such as the commercial mixture DP - 45 which contains only BEH - TEBP ( Great Lakes , 2004 ) . In order to reveal the sources of EH - TBB and BEH - TEBP in different e - waste recycling sites , we performed a correlation ( Pearson ' s correlation ) analysis between EH - TBB and"
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    ABSTRACT: A multi-residue analytical method was developed for the determination of a range of flame retardants (FRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging halogenated FRs (EFRs) and organophosphate FRs (PFRs), in food matrices. An ultrasonication and vacuum assisted extraction (UVAE), followed by a multi-stage clean-up procedure, enabled the removal of up to 1 g of lipid from 2.5 g of freeze-dried food samples and significantly reduce matrix effects. UVAE achieves a waste factor (WF) of about 10%, while the WFs of classical QuEChERS methods range usually between 50 and 90%. The low WF of UVAE leads to a dramatic improvement in the sensitivity along with saving up to 90% of spiking (internal) standards. Moreover, a two-stage clean-up on Florisil and aminopropyl silica was introduced after UVAE, for an efficient removal of pigments and residual lipids, which led to cleaner extracts than normally achieved by dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE). In this way, the extracts could be concentrated to low volumes, e.g. <100 μL and the equivalent matrix concentrations were up to 100 g ww/mL. The final analysis of PFRs was performed on GC-EI-MS, while PBDEs and EFRs were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. Validation tests were performed with three food matrices (lean beef, whole chicken egg and salmon filet), obtaining acceptable recoveries (66-135%) with good repeatability (RSD 1-24%, mean 7%). Method LOQs ranged between 0.008 to 0.04 ng/g dw for PBDEs, between 0.08 and 0.20 ng/g dw for EFRs, and between 1.4 and 3.6 ng/g dw for PFRs. The method was further applied to eight types of food samples (including meat, eggs, fish, and seafood) with lipid contents ranging from 0.1 to 22%. Various FRs were detected above MLOQ levels, demonstrating the wide range applicability of our method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method reported for simultaneous analysis of brominated and organophosphate FRs in food matrices.
    Journal of Chromatography A 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.05.001 · 4.26 Impact Factor
    • "e of pollutants into the environment during recycling processes . BEH - TEBP could have the same source as EH - TBB in commercial mixtures . For example , Firemaster 550 consists of about 35% of EH - TBB and 15% of BEH - TEBP ( Bearr et al . , 2010 ; Chemtura , 2008 ) and Firemaster BZ - 54 consists of about 70% of EH - TBB and 30% of BEH - TEBP ( Bearr et al . , 2010 ) . On the other hand , BEH - TEBP also has other sources , such as the commercial mixture DP - 45 which contains only BEH - TEBP ( Great Lakes , 2004 ) . In order to reveal the sources of EH - TBB and BEH - TEBP in different e - waste recycling sites , we performed a correlation ( Pearson ' s correlation ) analysis between EH - TBB and"
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    ABSTRACT: Several classes of flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), dechlorane plus (DPs), and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), together with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in indoor dust from five villages located in three e-waste recycling regions in Guangdong Province, South China. The medians of PBDEs, NBFRs, and PFRs in dust in five sites ranged from 685-67,500, 1460-50,010, and 2180-29,000ng/g, respectively. These concentrations were much higher than the medians of PCBs (52-2900ng/g). BDE 209 and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were the two major halogen flame retardants in dust, while tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the major PFRs. Principle component analysis revealed the different pollutant patterns among different sites. The estimated median human exposures of PBDEs, NBFRs, PFRs, and PCBs via dust ingestion were 1.1-24.1, 0.73-20.3, 1.36-23.5, and 0.04-0.93ng/kgbw/day for adults, and 16.2-352, 10.7-296, 19.9-343, 0.05-0.61, 0.65-13.6ng/kgbw/day for toddlers, respectively. Residents from Site 5 had the highest exposure (95 percentile levels and high dust ingestion for toddlers) of PBDEs (3920ng/kgbw/day), NBFRs (3200ng/kgbw/day), and PFRs (5280ng/kgbw/day). More attention should be paid to the contamination with NBFRs and PFRs, instead of PCBs, in these e-waste recycling regions, and local public health threat from PBDE alternatives should remain of concern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human exposure assessment of PFRs at e-waste sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Environment International 02/2015; 78C:1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2015.02.006 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    • "An identical protocol was used to prepare food spiked with acetone for use as a control diet. Concentrations of TBPH and TBB were selected from a previous study where exposure to these chemicals via their diet caused DNA damage in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) (Bearr et al., 2010). Exposure protocols were adapted from the Fish Short Term Reproductive Assay, OECD test 229 (OECD, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to a mixture of TBPH:TBB resulted in impaired fecundity in medaka fish.•Transcription of numerous genes were down-regulated following exposure to TBPH:TBB.•The brominated flame retardants TBPH and TBB are endocrine disrupting compounds.
    Aquatic Toxicology 11/2014; 158. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.10.019 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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