A new PET probe, (18)F-tetrafluoroborate, for the sodium/iodide symporter: possible impacts on nuclear medicine.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehang-Ro, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, Korea 110-744; Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Therapy, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 11/2010; 37(11):2105-7. DOI: 10.1007/s00259-010-1601-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT As early as 1915, it was found that iodide is required in the thyroid gland for the production of thyroid hormones. Since then, radioiodines have been used as tracers in thyroid function tests and as agents for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and benign thyroid diseases. Furthermore, knowledge of the importance of the role played by iodine transport in thyroid cancer cells provides the rationale for the use of radioiodines to diagnose and treat thyroid cancer (1, 2). In fact, the clinical utilization of radioiodines led to the birth of nuclear medicine. Today, it is known that the iodide pump is a sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), an intrinsic membrane protein of the thyroid gland follicular cells (3, 4), and that the NIS-catalysed accumulation of iodide in cells from the interstitium is achieved against its transmembrane electrochemical gradient, which is maintained by sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase. The identification of the human NIS (hNIS) gene created many new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities, and in particular, researchers are currently investigating the use of hNIS as a reporter gene for gene therapy and molecular and genomic imaging (5).

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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical and clinical tomographic imaging systems increasingly are being utilized for non-invasive imaging of reporter gene products to reveal the distribution of molecular therapeutics within living subjects. Reporter gene and probe combinations can be employed to monitor vectors for gene, viral, and cell-based therapies. There are several reporter systems available; however, those employing radionuclides for positron emission tomography (PET) or singlephoton emission computed tomography (SPECT) offer the highest sensitivity and the greatest promise for deep tissue imaging in humans. Within the category of radionuclide reporters, the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter (NIS) has emerged as one of the most promising for preclinical and translational research. NIS has been incorporated into a remarkable variety of viral and non-viral vectors in which its functionality is conveniently determined by in vitro iodide uptake assays prior to live animal imaging. This review on the NIS reporter will focus on 1) differences between endogenous NIS and heterologously-expressed NIS, 2) qualitative or comparative use of NIS as an imaging reporter in preclinical and translational gene therapy, oncolytic viral therapy, and cell trafficking research, and 3) use of NIS as an absolute quantitative reporter.
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