Inhibitory action of toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on xylose to xylitol bioconversion by Candida guilliermondii.
ABSTRACT The inhibitory action of acetic acid, ferulic acid, and syringaldehyde on metabolism of Candida guilliermondii yeast during xylose to xylitol bioconversion was evaluated. Assays were performed in buffered and nonbuffered semidefined medium containing xylose as main sugar (80.0 g/l), supplemented or not with acetic acid (0.8-2.6 g/l), ferulic acid (0.2-0.6 g/l), and/or syringaldehyde (0.3-0.8 g/l), according to a 2(3) full factorial design. Since only individual effects of the variables were observed, assays were performed in a next step in semidefined medium containing different concentrations of each toxic compound individually, for better understanding of their maximum concentration that can be present in the fermentation medium without affecting yeast metabolism. It was concluded that acetic acid, ferulic acid, and syringaldehyde are compounds that may affect Candida guilliermondii metabolism (mainly cell growth) during bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. Such results are of interest and reveal that complete removal of toxic compounds from the fermentation medium is not necessary to obtain efficient conversion of xylose to xylitol by Candida guilliermondii. Fermentation in buffered medium was also considered as an alternative to overcome the inhibition caused by these toxic compounds, mainly by acetic acid.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A heat-labile phenolic acid decarboxylase from Candida guilliermondii (an anamorph of Pichia guilliermondii) was purified to homogeneity by simple successive column chromatography within 3 days. The molecular mass was 20 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 36 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography, suggesting that the purified enzyme is a homodimer. The optimal pH and temperature were approximately 6.0 and 25�C. Characteristically, more than 50% of the optimal activity was observed at 0�C, suggesting that this enzyme is cold-adapted. The enzyme converted p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid to corresponding products with high specific activities of approximately 600, 530, and 46 U/mg, respectively. The activity was stimulated by Mg2? ions, whereas it was completely inhibited by Fe2?, Ni2 ?, Cu2?, Hg2?, 4-chloromericuribenzoate, N-bromosuccinimide, and diethyl pyrocarbonate. The enzyme was inducible and expressed inside the cells moderately by ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid and significantly by non-metabolizable 6-hydroxy-2- naphthoic acid.Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2012; 39:55–62. · 2.73 Impact Factor