Evaluation of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion in a Pediatric Emergency Department
ABSTRACT The Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) is a validated tool for identifying the effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Previous research focused on sport-related sideline evaluation of adolescents and adults. Our goal was to evaluate performance of the SAC among subjects with and without head injury in a pediatric emergency department (ED).
This was an observational study of children 6 to 18 years of age who presented to an ED with blunt head injury (case-patients) or minor extremity injury (controls). SAC and graded-symptom-checklist scores were compared. American Academy of Neurology concussion grades, presence of loss of consciousness and posttraumatic amnesia were also compared with SAC and graded-symptom-checklist scores among case-patients.
Three hundred forty-eight children were enrolled. SAC scores trended lower (greater cognitive deficits) for case-patients compared with controls but did not reach significance. Graded-symptom-checklist scores were significantly higher among case-patients. Presence of altered mental status magnified this effect. There was no correlation between SAC scores and other indicators of mTBI. There was a positive correlation between graded-symptom-checklist scores and posttraumatic amnesia and American Academy of Neurology concussion grade.
The graded symptom checklist reliably identified mTBI symptoms for all children aged 6 years and older. SAC scores tended to be lower for case-patients compared with controls but did not reach significance. Patients with altered mental status at the time of injury manifest an increased number and severity of symptoms. Additional research into strategies to identify cognitive deficits related to mTBI and classify mTBI severity in children is needed.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The King-Devick Test® (K-D) is a brief measure of cognitive processing speed and rapid gaze shifting that appears sensitive to the effects of sport-related concussion. This study evaluated its diagnostic and incremental validity in civilian patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Methods: Participants with MTBI (n = 26) and controls with non-head injuries (n = 33) were prospectively recruited from an Emergency Department (ED). They underwent a clinical evaluation including the K-D test and the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted within 10 days post-injury. Results: The patients with MTBI differed from those without MTBI on components of the SCAT2, including the Symptom Scale (Cohen's d = 1.02-1.15, p < 0.001) and Standardized Assessment of Concussion (d = 0.81, p = 0.004), but not the K-D test (d = 0.40, p = 0.148). In a logistic regression analysis, the K-D Test did not contribute over and above these two measures in predicting group membership (MTBI vs. control), p = 0.191. Low K-D Test scores in the MTBI group (<1 SD below controls) were not associated with poor SCAT2 performance, loss of consciousness or traumatic abnormalities on MRI, suggesting these cases may have been false positives. Conclusions: The present findings do not support the K-D Test for the assessment of civilian MTBI in an ED setting.Brain Injury 08/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues.The American Journal of Sports Medicine 08/2014; 42(10). DOI:10.1177/0363546514543775 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent clinical practice parameters encourage systematic use of concussion surveillance/management tools that evaluate participating athletes at baseline and after concussion. Office-based tools (Sports Concussion Assessment Tool; SCAT2) require accurate baseline assessment to maximize utility but no normative data exist for children on the SCAT2, limiting identification of "normal" or "impaired" score ranges. The purpose of this study was to develop child and adolescent baseline norms for the SCAT2 to provide reference values for different age groups. A community-based approach was implemented to compile baseline performance data on the SCAT2 in 761 children aged 9 to 18 to create age- and sex-graded norms. Findings indicate a significant age effect on SCAT2 performance such that older adolescents and teenagers produced higher (better) total scores than younger children (ages 9 to 11) driven by age differences on individual components measuring cognition (SAC), postural stability (BESS), and symptom report. Females endorsed greater numbers of symptoms at baseline than males. Normative data tables are presented. Findings support the SCAT2 as a useful clinical tool for assessing baseline functioning in teenagers, but suggest clinical utility may be limited in children under age 11. Follow-up studies after incident concussion are needed to confirm this assumption.The Clinical Neuropsychologist 09/2014; 28(7):1-13. DOI:10.1080/13854046.2014.952667 · 1.58 Impact Factor