Article

Serum transforming growth factor β1 during diabetes development in non-obese diabetic mice and humans.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy.
Clinical & Experimental Immunology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 12/2010; 162(3):407-14. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04253.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent data show that regulatory cells with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-dependent activity are able to restore self-tolerance in overtly diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Thus, TGF-β1 seems to have a relevant role in protection from autoimmune diabetes. Our aim was to investigate the possible significance of serum TGF-β1 measurement in the natural history of diabetes in NOD mice, as well as in children positive for at least one islet-related antibody. Serum TGF-β1 (both total and active) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at monthly intervals in 26 NOD mice during the spontaneous development of diabetes and, on a yearly basis, in nine siblings of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) with a follow-up of 4 years. Diabetes appeared between the 12th week of age and the end of the study period (36 weeks) in 17 mice. TGF-β1 serum level variations occurred in the prediabetic period in both NOD mice and humans and diabetes diagnosis followed a continuing reduction of active TGF-β1 (aTGF-β1) serum levels. In mice, aTGF-β1 serum levels measured at 4 weeks of age correlated positively with severity of insulitis, and negatively with percentage of insulin-positive cells. Our findings suggest that in NOD mice serum TGF-β1 levels during the natural history of the diabetes reflect the course of islet inflammation. The measurement of aTGF-β1 in islet-related antibody-positive subjects may provide insights into the natural history of prediabetic phase of T1D.

1 Bookmark
 · 
127 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Cytokines may promote or inhibit disease progression in type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether systemic proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines associated differently with fasting and meal-stimulated beta cell function in patients with longer term type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The beta cell function of 118 patients with type 1 diabetes of duration of 0.75-4.97 years was tested using a standardised liquid mixed meal test (MMT). Serum samples obtained at -5 to 120 min were analysed by multiplex bead-based technology for proinflammatory (IL-6, TNF-α), anti-inflammatory (IL-1 receptor antagonist [IL-1RA]) and regulatory (IL-10, TGF-β1-3) cytokines, and by standard procedures for C-peptide. Differences in beta cell function between patient groups were assessed using stepwise multiple regression analysis adjusting for sex, age, duration of diabetes, BMI, HbA1c and fasting blood glucose. RESULTS: High fasting systemic concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with increased fasting and stimulated C-peptide concentrations even after adjustment for confounders (p < 0.03). Interestingly, increased concentrations of anti-inflammatory/regulatory IL-1RA, IL-10, TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 were associated with lower fasting and stimulated C-peptide levels (p < 0.04), losing significance on adjustment for anthropometric variables. During the MMT, circulating concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α increased (p < 0.001) while those of IL-10 and TGF-β1 decreased (p < 0.02) and IL-1RA and TGF-β2 remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The association between better preserved beta cell function in longer term type 1 diabetes and increased systemic proinflammatory cytokines and decreased anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines is suggestive of ongoing inflammatory disease activity that might be perpetuated by the remaining beta cells. These findings should be considered when designing immune intervention studies aimed at patients with longer term type 1 diabetes and residual beta cell function.
    Diabetologia 03/2013; 56(6). · 6.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes is recognized as an autoimmune inflammatory disease and low grade inflammation is also observed in type 2 diabetic patients. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a new player in inflammation. Th17 cells, as the main source of IL-17, require transforming growth factor β (TGF- β ) and interleukin 23 (IL-23). The aim of this study was to investigate serum IL-17, IL-23 and TGF- β levels in diabetic patients and controls. In this case-control study, serum levels of IL-17, IL-23, and TGF- β were measured in 24 type 1 diabetic patients and 30 healthy controls using the ELISA method. Simultaneously, the same methodology was used to compare serum concentration of these three cytokines in 38 type 2 diabetic patients and 40 healthy controls. There was no significant difference between serum levels of IL-17 and IL-23 cytokines between cases and controls. However, TGF- β was significantly lower in type 1 diabetic patients (P < 0.001). Serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels demonstrate no association with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but, in line with previous studies, TGF- β levels were lower in type 1 diabetic patients.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:718946. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background:Children and adolescents with overt type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been found to show an altered carnitine profile. This pattern has not previously been analyzed in neonates before onset of the disease.Materials and methods:Fifty children who developed T1D during the first 6 years of life, born and living in the Tuscany and Umbria Regions of Italy, were identified and 200 controls were recruited into the study. All newborns were subjected to extended neonatal screening by mass spectrometry at 48-72 h of life. Four controls for each of the 50 index cases were taken randomly and blinded in the same analytical batch. The panel used for neonatal screening consists of 13 amino acids, free carnitine, 33 acyl-carnitines and 21 ratios. All Guthrie cards are analyzed within 2 days of collection.Results:Total and free carnitine were found to be significantly lower in neonates who later developed T1D compared with controls. Moreover, the concentrations of the acyl-carnitines - acetyl-L-carnitine (C2), proprionylcarnitine (C3), 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH), miristoylcarnitine (C4), palmitoylcarnitine (C16) and stearoylcarnitine (C18) - were also significantly low in the cases vs controls. Furthermore, total amino-acid concentrations, expressed as the algebraic sum of all amino acids tested, showed a trend toward lower levels in cases vs controls.Conclusions:We found that carnitine and amino-acid deficit may be evident before the clinical appearance of T1D, possibly from birth. The evaluation of these metabolites in the neonatal period of children human leukocyte antigen genetically at 'risk' to develop T1D, could represent an additional tool for the prediction of T1D and could also offer the possibility to design new strategies for the primary prevention of the disease from birth.
    Nutrition & Diabetes 10/2013; 3:e94. · 1.52 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
58 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014