Early treatment of candidemia in adults: a review.
ABSTRACT Invasive candidiasis is associated with high mortality, particularly in adults. Retrospective studies show that shorter times to treatment are correlated with a lower risk of death. A number of factors can be used to predict which patients would benefit from antifungal prophylaxis or early (pre-emptive or empirical) therapy. Detection of the fungal cell wall component (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BDG) shows promise as an early biomarker of invasive fungal infection and may be useful in identifying patients who would benefit from early antifungal treatment. To date, no consistent early treatment strategy has evolved. Proof-of-concept studies are needed to assess the role of pre-emptive and empirical therapy in ICU patients and the relevance of BDG as an early marker of infection.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and impact on outcome of prolonged empirical antifungal treatment in ICU patients. Retrospective observational study performed during a one-year period. Patients who stayed in the ICU >48 h, and received empirical antifungal treatment were included. Patients with confirmed invasive fungal disease were excluded. Prolonged antifungal treatment was defined as percentage of days in the ICU with antifungals > median percentage in the whole cohort of patients. Among the 560 patients hospitalized for >48 h, 153 (27%) patients received empirical antifungal treatment and were included in this study. Fluconazole was the most frequently used antifungal (46% of study patients). Median length of ICU stay was 19 days (IQR 8, 34), median duration of antifungal treatment was 8 days (IQR 3, 16), and median percentage of days in the ICU with antifungals was 48% (IQR 25, 80). Seventy-seven patients (50%) received prolonged empirical antifungal treatment. Chemotherapy (OR [95% CI] 2.6 [1.07-6.69], p = 0.034), and suspected infection at ICU admission (3.1 [1.05-9.48], p = 0.041) were independently associated with prolonged empirical antifungal treatment.Duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay were significantly shorter in patients with prolonged empirical antifungal treatment compared with those with no prolonged empirical antifungal treatment. However, ICU mortality was similar in the two groups (46 versus 52%, p = 0.62). Empirical antifungal treatment was prescribed in a large proportion of study patients. Chemotherapy, and suspicion of infection at ICU admission are independently associated with prolonged empirical antifungal treatment.Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 03/2014; 13(1):11. · 1.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a severe complication in the ICU setting. A high proportion of ICU patients become colonized with Candida species, but only 5-30 % develop IC. Progressive colonization and major abdominal surgery are well-known risk factors for Candida infection. IC is difficult to predict and early diagnosis remains a major challenge. In addition, microbiological documentation often occurs late in the course of infection. Delays in initiating appropriate treatment have been associated with increased mortality. In an attempt to decrease Candida-related mortality, an increasing number of critically ill patients without documented IC receive empirical systemic antifungal therapy, leading to concern for antifungal overuse. Scores/predictive rules permit the stratification and selection of IC high-risk patients who may benefit from early antifungal therapy. However, they have a far better negative predictive value than positive predictive value. New IC biomarkers [mannan, anti-mannan, (1,3)-β-D-glucan, and polymerase chain reaction] are being increasingly used to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or therapeutic monitoring. Although reasonably sensitive and specific, these techniques remain largely investigational, and their clinical usefulness has yet to be established.European Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 04/2014; · 5.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe temporal trends in the epidemiology, clinical management and outcome of candidemia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Intensive care medicine. 08/2014;