Article

Myocardial Fibrosis as an Early Manifestation of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 08/2010; 363(6):552-63. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1002659
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Myocardial fibrosis is a hallmark of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a proposed substrate for arrhythmias and heart failure. In animal models, profibrotic genetic pathways are activated early, before hypertrophic remodeling. Data showing early profibrotic responses to sarcomere-gene mutations in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are lacking.
We used echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and serum biomarkers of collagen metabolism, hemodynamic stress, and myocardial injury to evaluate subjects with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and a confirmed genotype.
The study involved 38 subjects with pathogenic sarcomere mutations and overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 39 subjects with mutations but no left ventricular hypertrophy, and 30 controls who did not have mutations. Levels of serum C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) were significantly higher in mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy and in subjects with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy than in controls (31% and 69% higher, respectively; P<0.001). The ratio of PICP to C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen was increased only in subjects with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, suggesting that collagen synthesis exceeds degradation. Cardiac MRI studies showed late gadolinium enhancement, indicating myocardial fibrosis, in 71% of subjects with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but in none of the mutation carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy.
Elevated levels of serum PICP indicated increased myocardial collagen synthesis in sarcomere-mutation carriers without overt disease. This profibrotic state preceded the development of left ventricular hypertrophy or fibrosis visible on MRI. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.)

Full-text

Available from: Arantxa González, May 26, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
156 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with systolic dysfunction carries a poor prognosis. Although late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance is associated with adverse cardiac events in HCM and is inversely related to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), it is unknown whether LGE or LVEF more accurately predicts adverse cardiac events in HCM with systolic dysfunction. We retrospectively assessed the extent of LGE with a threshold of 6 standard deviations in 46 consecutive HCM patients with systolic dysfunction defined as LVEF <50 % (average 35 ± 12 %) who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (35 males, mean age 59 ± 14 years). They were followed up over 1755 ± 594 days. The composite adverse cardiac events end point included cardiovascular death, lethal arrhythmia, cardioembolic stroke, and unplanned heart failure hospitalization. LGE was detected in all patients, and the mean extent was 30 ± 15 %. Twenty-nine patients developed adverse cardiac events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed the extent of LGE as a good independent predictor of adverse cardiac events. Risk increased with the extent of LGE (hazard ratio = 1.62/10 % increase in LGE, 95 % confidence interval = 1.23-2.15, p < 0.001). LVEF was inversely related to the extent of LGE (r = -0.44; p = 0.002) and was also an independent predictor of adverse cardiac events. Risk decreased with LVEF (hazard ratio = 0.68/10 % increase in LVEF, 95 % confidence interval = 0.51-0.91, p = 0.010). The Akaike information criterion evaluating the fit of a model demonstrated that the extent of LGE was a better independent predictor of MACE than LVEF (Akaike information criterion = 172.20 and 178.09, respectively).The extent of LGE was a good independent predictor of adverse cardiac events and reflected mortality and morbidity more precisely than LVEF in HCM with systolic dysfunction.
    Heart and Vessels 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00380-015-0670-4 · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heart failure is a life-threatening condition that carries a considerable emotional and socio-economic burden. As a result of the global increase in the ageing population, sedentary life-style, increased prevalence of risk factors, and improved survival from cardiovascular events, the incidence of heart failure will continue to rise. Despite the advances in current cardiovascular therapies, many patients are not suitable for or may not benefit from conventional treatments. Thus, more effective therapies are required. Transforming growth factor (TGF) β family of cytokines is involved in heart development and dys-regulated TGFβ signalling is commonly associated with fibrosis, aberrant angiogenesis and accelerated progression into heart failure. Therefore, a potential therapeutic pathway is to modulate TGFβ signalling; however, broad blockage of TGFβ signalling may cause unwanted side effects due to its pivotal role in tissue homeostasis. We found that leucine-rich α-2 glycoprotein 1 (LRG1) promotes blood vessel formation via regulating the context-dependent endothelial TGFβ signalling. This review will focus on the interaction between LRG1 and TGFβ signalling, their involvement in the pathogenesis of heart failure, and the potential for LRG1 to function as a novel therapeutic target.
    Biophysical Reviews 03/2015; 7(1). DOI:10.1007/s12551-014-0158-y
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The clinical variability in patients with sarcomeric cardiomyopathies is striking: a mutation causes cardiomyopathy in one individual, while the identical mutation is harmless in a family member. Moreover, the clinical phenotype varies ranging from asymmetric hypertrophy to severe dilatation of the heart. Identification of a single phenotype-associated disease mechanism would facilitate the design of targeted treatments for patient groups with different clinical phenotypes. However, evidence from both the clinic and basic knowledge of functional and structural properties of the sarcomere argue against a 'one size fits all' therapy for treatment of one clinical phenotype. Meticulous clinical and basic studies are needed to unravel the initial and progressive changes initiated by sarcomere mutations in order to better understand why mutations in the same gene can lead to such opposing phenotypes. Ultimately, we need to design an "integrative physiology" approach in order to fully realize patient/gene-tailored therapy. Expertise within different research fields (cardiology, genetics, cellular biology, physiology and pharmacology) must be joined to link longitudinal clinical studies with mechanistic insights obtained from molecular and functional studies in novel cardiac muscle systems. New animal models, which reflect both initial and more advanced stages of sarcomeric cardiomyopathy, will also aid in achieving these goals. Here we discuss current priorities in clinical and preclinical investigation aimed at increasing our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms leading from mutation to disease. Such information will provide the basis to improve risk stratification and to develop therapies to prevent/rescue cardiac dysfunction and remodeling caused by sarcomere mutations. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Cardiovascular Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvv019 · 5.81 Impact Factor