Population pharmacokinetics of tapentadol immediate release (IR) in healthy subjects and patients with moderate or severe pain
ABSTRACT Tapentadol is a new, centrally active analgesic agent with two modes of action--mu opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition--and the immediate-release (IR) formulation is approved in the US for the relief of moderate to severe acute pain. The aims of this analysis were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to facilitate the understanding of the pharmacokinetics of tapentadol IR in healthy subjects and patients following single and multiple dosing, and to identify covariates that might explain variability in exposure following oral administration.
The analysis included pooled data from 11,385 serum pharmacokinetic samples from 1827 healthy subjects and patients with moderate to severe pain. Population pharmacokinetic modelling was conducted using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (NONMEM) software to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters and the influence of the subjects' demographic characteristics, clinical laboratory chemistry values and disease status on these parameters. Simulations were performed to assess the clinical relevance of the covariate effects on tapentadol exposure.
A two-compartment model with zero-order release followed by first-order absorption and first-order elimination best described the pharmacokinetics of tapentadol IR following oral administration. The interindividual variability (coefficient of variation) in apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and the apparent central volume of distribution after oral administration were 30% and 29%, respectively. An additive error model was used to describe the residual variability in the log-transformed data, and the standard deviation values were 0.308 and 0.314 for intensively and sparsely sampled data, respectively. Covariate analysis showed that sex, age, bodyweight, race, body fat, hepatic function (using total bilirubin and total protein as surrogate markers), health status and creatinine clearance were statistically significant factors influencing the pharmacokinetics of tapentadol. Total bilirubin was a particularly important factor that influenced CL/F, which decreased by more than 60% in subjects with total bilirubin greater than 50 micromol/L.
The population pharmacokinetic model for tapentadol IR identified the relationship between pharmacokinetic parameters and a wide range of covariates. The simulations of tapentadol exposure with identified, statistically significant covariates demonstrated that only hepatic function (as characterized by total bilirubin and total protein) may be considered a clinically relevant factor that warrants dose adjustment. None of the other covariates are of clinical relevance, nor do they necessitate dose adjustment.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, researchers from knowledge-based system (KBS) fields have pushed toward rapidly develop a reusable knowledge base with a greater flexibility and adaptability to empower domain experts developing their own domain-oriented high performance knowledge-based systems. We develop a strategic-reuse system that takes as input a declarative description of a domain, and then automatically generates as output an efficient, domain-specific KBS development environment along with a reusable knowledge base library. A test plan can be further developed based on the relationships between the specific KBS performance requirement and the KB components' strategic characteristics. This paper focuses on developing such a strategic-reuse framework to characterize KB components in terms of four generic strategic features: computational efficiency, interactive capability, modeling flexibility, and knowledge usabilitySoutheastcon '98. Proceedings. IEEE; 05/1998
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ABSTRACT: Several mechanisms can be proposed to explain an apparent synergistic analgesic action between μ-opioid and α(2)-adrenergic receptor agonists. Combining both effects in a single molecule eliminates the potential for drug-drug interactions inherent in multiple drug therapy. Tapentadol is the first US FDA-approved centrally acting analgesic having both μ-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) reuptake inhibition activity with minimal serotonin reuptake inhibition. This dual mode of action may make tapentadol particularly useful in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Having limited protein binding, no active metabolites and no significant microsomal enzyme induction or inhibition, tapentadol has a limited potential for drug-drug interactions. Clinical trial evidence in acute and chronic non-cancer pain and neuropathic pain supports an opioid-sparing effect that reduces some of the typical opioid-related adverse effects. Specifically, the reduction in treatment-emergent gastrointestinal adverse effects for tapentadol compared with equianalgesic pure μ-opioid receptor agonists results in improved tolerability and adherence to therapy for both the immediate- and extended-release formulations of tapentadol.CNS Drugs 05/2011; 25(5):359-70. DOI:10.2165/11589080-000000000-00000 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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