CSF Aβ(42) and tau in Parkinson's disease with cognitive impairment.
ABSTRACT We tested the hypothesis that the CSF biomarker signature associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is present in a subset of individuals with Parkinson's disease and Dementia (PD-D) or with PD and Cognitive Impairment, Not Dementia (PD-CIND). We quantified CSF Aβ(42), total tau (T-tau), and phospho-tau (P181-tau) using commercially available kits. Samples were from 345 individuals in seven groups (n): Controls ≤50 years (35), Controls >50 years (115), amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) (24), AD (49), PD (49), PD-CIND (62), and PD-D (11). We observed expected changes in AD or aMCI compared with age-matched or younger controls. CSF Aβ(42) was reduced in PD-CIND (P < 0.05) and PD-D (P < 0.01), whereas average CSF T-tau and P181-tau were unchanged or decreased. One-third of PD-CIND and one-half of PD-D patients had the biomarker signature of AD. Abnormal metabolism of Aβ(42) may be a common feature of PD-CIND and PD-D.
Article: Cerebrospinal fluid tau/beta-amyloid(42) ratio as a prediction of cognitive decline in nondemented older adults.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the ability of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma measures to discriminate early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) (defined by clinical criteria and presence/absence of brain amyloid) from nondemented aging and to assess whether these biomarkers can predict future dementia in cognitively normal individuals. Evaluation of CSF beta-amyloid(40) (Abeta(40)), Abeta(42), tau, phosphorylated tau(181), and plasma Abeta(40) and Abeta(42) and longitudinal clinical follow-up (from 1 to 8 years). Longitudinal studies of healthy aging and dementia through an AD research center. Community-dwelling volunteers (n = 139) aged 60 to 91 years and clinically judged as cognitively normal (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR], 0) or having very mild (CDR, 0.5) or mild (CDR, 1) AD dementia. Individuals with very mild or mild AD have reduced mean levels of CSF Abeta(42) and increased levels of CSF tau and phosphorylated tau(181). Cerebrospinal fluid Abeta(42) level completely corresponds with the presence or absence of brain amyloid (imaged with Pittsburgh Compound B) in demented and nondemented individuals. The CSF tau/Abeta(42) ratio (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.58-17.22) and phosphorylated tau(181)/Abeta(42) ratio (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.62-11.86) predict conversion from a CDR of 0 to a CDR greater than 0. The very mildest symptomatic stage of AD exhibits the same CSF biomarker phenotype as more advanced AD. In addition, levels of CSF Abeta(42), when combined with amyloid imaging, augment clinical methods for identifying in individuals with brain amyloid deposits whether dementia is present or not. Importantly, CSF tau/Abeta(42) ratios show strong promise as antecedent (preclinical) biomarkers that predict future dementia in cognitively normal older adults.Archives of Neurology 04/2007; 64(3):343-9. · 7.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The threat of a looming pandemic of dementia in elderly people highlights the compelling need for the development and validation of biomarkers that can be used to identify pre-clinical and prodromal stages of disease in addition to fully symptomatic dementia. Although predictive risk factors and correlative neuroimaging measures will have important roles in these efforts, this Review describes recent progress in the discovery, validation, and standardisation of molecular biomarkers--small molecules and macromolecules whose concentration in the brain or biological fluids can aid diagnosis at different stages of the more common dementing diseases and in the assessment of disease progression and response to therapeutics. An approach that efficiently combines independent information from risk-factor assessment, neuroimaging measures, and biomarkers might soon guide clinicians in the early diagnosis and management of cognitive impairment in elderly people.The Lancet Neurology 08/2008; 7(8):704-14. · 23.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between baseline MRI and CSF biomarkers and subsequent change in continuous measures of cognitive and functional abilities in cognitively normal (CN) subjects and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) and to examine the ability of these biomarkers to predict time to conversion from aMCI to AD. Data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, which consists of CN, aMCI, and AD cohorts with both CSF and MRI, were used. Baseline CSF (t-tau, Abeta(1-42), and p-tau(181P)) and MRI scans were obtained in 399 subjects (109 CN, 192 aMCI, 98 AD). Structural Abnormality Index (STAND) scores, which reflect the degree of AD-like features in MRI, were computed for each subject. Change on continuous measures of cognitive and functional performance was modeled as average Clinical Dementia Rating-sum of boxes and Mini-Mental State Examination scores over a 2-year period. STAND was a better predictor of subsequent cognitive/functional change than CSF biomarkers. Single-predictor Cox proportional hazard models for time to conversion from aMCI to AD showed that STAND and log (t-tau/Abeta(1-42)) were both predictive of future conversion. The age-adjusted hazard ratio for an interquartile change (95% confidence interval) of STAND was 2.6 (1.7, 4.2) and log (t-tau/Abeta(1-42)) was 2.0 (1.1, 3.4). Both MRI and CSF provided information about future cognitive change even after adjusting for baseline cognitive performance. MRI and CSF provide complimentary predictive information about time to conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease and combination of the 2 provides better prediction than either source alone. However, we found that MRI was a slightly better predictor of future clinical/functional decline than the CSF biomarkers tested.Neurology 08/2009; 73(4):294-301. · 8.31 Impact Factor