Comparison of methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein capture for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis reveal CpG sequence coverage bias.
ABSTRACT DNA methylation primarily occurs at CpG dinucleotides in mammals and is a common epigenetic mark that plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Profiling DNA methylation patterns across the genome is vital to understand DNA methylation changes that occur during development and in disease phenotype. In this study, we compared two commonly used approaches to enrich for methylated DNA regions of the genome, namely methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) that is based on enrichment with antibodies specific for 5'-methylcytosine (5MeC), and capture of methylated DNA using a methyl-CpG binding domain-based (MBD) protein to discover differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in cancer. The enriched methylated DNA fractions were interrogated on Affymetrix promoter tiling arrays and differentially methylated regions were identified. A detailed validation study of 42 regions was performed using Sequenom MassCLEAVE technique. This detailed analysis revealed that both enrichment techniques are sensitive for detecting DMRs and preferentially identified different CpG rich regions of the prostate cancer genome, with MeDIP commonly enriching for methylated regions with a low CpG density, while MBD capture favors regions of higher CpG density and identifies the greatest proportion of CpG islands. This is the first detailed validation report comparing different methylated DNA enrichment techniques for identifying regions of differential DNA methylation. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the nuances of the methods used for DNA genome-wide methylation analyses so that accurate interpretation of the biology is not overlooked.
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ABSTRACT: It has been shown that DNA demethylation plays a pivotal role in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this action is still unclear. Previous reports indicated that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Aid, also known as Aicda) is involved in DNA demethylation in several developmental processes, as well as cell fusion-mediated reprogramming. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that Aid may be involved in the DNA demethylation that occurs during the generation of iPS cells. In this study, we examined the function of Aid in iPS cell generation using Aid knockout (Aid-/-) mice expressing a GFP reporter under the control of a pluripotent stem cell marker, Nanog. By introducing Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, Nanog-GFP-positive iPS cells could be generated from the fibroblasts and primary B cells of Aid-/- mice. Their induction efficiency was similar to that of wild-type (Aid+/+) iPS cells. The Aid-/- iPS cells showed normal proliferation and gave rise to chimeras, indicating their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency. A comprehensive DNA methylation analysis showed only a few differences between Aid+/+ and Aid-/- iPS cells. These data suggest that Aid does not have crucial functions in DNA demethylation during iPS cell generation.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94735. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic modifications have proven to play a significant role in cancer development, as well as fetal development. Taking advantage of the knowledge acquired during the last decade, great interest has been shown worldwide in deciphering the fetal epigenome towards the development of methylation-based non-invasive prenatal tests (NIPT). In this review, we highlight the different approaches implemented, such as sodium bisulfite conversion, restriction enzyme digestion and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation, for the identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between free fetal DNA found in maternal blood and DNA from maternal blood cells. Furthermore, we evaluate the use of selected DMRs identified towards the development of NIPT for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. In addition, we perform a comparison analysis, evaluate the performance of each assay and provide a comprehensive discussion on the potential use of different methylation-based technologies in retrieving the fetal methylome, with the aim of further expanding the development of NIPT assays.Genes. 01/2014; 5(2):310-29.
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ABSTRACT: Free circulating DNA (fcDNA) has many potential clinical applications, due to the non-invasive way in which it is collected. However, because of the low concentration of fcDNA in blood, genome-wide analysis carries many technical challenges that must be overcome before fcDNA studies can reach their full potential. There are currently no definitive standards for fcDNA collection, processing and whole-genome sequencing. We report novel detailed methodology for the capture of high-quality methylated fcDNA, library preparation and downstream genome-wide Next-Generation Sequencing. We also describe the effects of sample storage, processing and scaling on fcDNA recovery and quality.BMC genomics. 06/2014; 15(1):476.