Central nervous system demyelinating disease protection by the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis depends on polysaccharide A expression.

Section of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 10/2010; 185(7):4101-8. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1001443
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The importance of gut commensal bacteria in maintaining immune homeostasis is increasingly understood. We recently described that alteration of the gut microflora can affect a population of Foxp3(+)T(reg) cells that regulate demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the experimental model of human multiple sclerosis. We now extend our previous observations on the role of commensal bacteria in CNS demyelination, and we demonstrate that Bacteroides fragilis producing a bacterial capsular polysaccharide Ag can protect against EAE. Recolonization with wild type B. fragilis maintained resistance to EAE, whereas reconstitution with polysaccharide A-deficient B. fragilis restored EAE susceptibility. Enhanced numbers of Foxp3(+)T(reg) cells in the cervical lymph nodes were observed after intestinal recolonization with either strain of B. fragilis. Ex vivo, CD4(+)T cells obtained from mice reconstituted with wild type B. fragilis had significantly enhanced rates of conversion into IL-10-producing Foxp3(+)T(reg) cells and offered greater protection against disease. Our results suggest an important role for commensal bacterial Ags, in particular B. fragilis expressing polysaccharide A, in protecting against CNS demyelination in EAE and perhaps human multiple sclerosis.

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    ABSTRACT: Bacteroides fragilis is a widely distributed member of the human gut microbiome and an opportunistic pathogen. Cell surface molecules produced by this organism likely play important roles in colonization, communication with other microbes, and pathogenicity, but the protein composition of the outer membrane (OM) and the mechanisms used to transport polypeptides into the extracellular space are poorly characterized. Here we used LC-MS/MS to analyze the OM proteome and secretome of B. fragilis NCTC 9343 grown under laboratory conditions. Of the 229 OM proteins that we identified, 108 are predicted to be lipoproteins, and 61 are predicted to be TonB-dependent transporters. Based on their proximity to genes encoding TonB-dependent transporters, many of the lipoprotein genes likely encode proteins involved in nutrient or small molecule uptake. Interestingly, protease accessibility and biotinylation experiments indicated that an unusually large fraction of the lipoproteins are cell-surface exposed. We also identified three proteins that are members of a novel family of autotransporters, multiple potential type I protein secretion systems, and proteins that appear to be components of a type VI secretion apparatus. The secretome consisted of lipoproteins and other proteins that might be substrates of the putative type I or type VI secretion systems. Our proteomic studies show that B. fragilis differs considerably from well-studied Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli in both the spectrum of OM proteins that it produces and the range of secretion strategies that it utilizes.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117732. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117732 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Commensal bacteria impact host health and immunity through various mechanisms, including the production of immunomodulatory molecules. Bacter-oides fragilis produces a capsular polysaccharide (PSA), which induces regulatory T cells and mucosal tolerance. However, unlike pathogens, which employ secretion systems, the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria deliver molecules to the host remain unknown. We reveal that Bacteroides fragilis releases PSA in outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that induce immunomodulatory effects and prevent experimental colitis. Dendritic cells (DCs) sense OMV-associated PSA through TLR2, resulting in enhanced regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. OMV-induced signaling in DCs requires growth arrest and DNA-damage-induc-ible protein (Gadd45a). DCs treated with PSA-containing OMVs prevent experimental colitis, whereas Gadd45a À/À DCs are unable to promote regulatory T cell responses or suppress proinflam-matory cytokine production and host pathology. These findings demonstrate that OMV-mediated delivery of a commensal molecule prevents disease, uncovering a mechanism of interkingdom communication between the microbiota and mammals.
    Cell Host & Microbe 10/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2012.08.004 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The intestinal microflora affects the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases by influencing immune system function. Some bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, have been reported to have beneficial effects on immune function. However, little is known about the effects of yeasts. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of various dietary yeasts contained in fermented foods on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects.Methods The effects of eight yeasts selected from 18 types of yeasts contained in fermented foods were examined using an EAE model. Of these, Candida kefyr was investigated by analyzing the intestinal microflora and its effects on intestinal and systemic immune states.ResultsAdministration of C. kefyr ameliorated the severity of EAE. Reduced numbers of Th17 cells, suppressed interleukin (IL)-6 production by intestinal explants, and increased Tregs and CD103-positive regulatory dendritic cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were observed. Analysis of 16s-rDNA from feces of C. kefyr-treated mice demonstrated increased Lactobacillales and decreased Bacteroides compared to control flora. Transfer of intestinal microbiota also resulted in decreased Bacteroides and ameliorated symptoms of EAE. Thus, oral administration of C. kefyr ameliorated EAE by altering the microflora, accompanied by increased Tregs and CD103-positive regulatory dendritic cells in MLNs and decreased Th17 cells in the intestinal lamina propria.InterpretationOral ingestion of C. kefyr may have beneficial effects on MS by modifying microflora. In addition, our findings also suggested the potential health benefits of dietary yeasts.
    12/2014; 2(1). DOI:10.1002/acn3.153

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