[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guidelines on the management of Helicobacter pylori, which cover indications for management and treatment strategies, were produced in 2000.
To update the guidelines at the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG) Third Maastricht Consensus Conference, with emphasis on the potential of H pylori eradication for the prevention of gastric cancer.
Eradication of H pylori infection is recommended in (a) patients with gastroduodenal diseases such as peptic ulcer disease and low grade gastric, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma; (b) patients with atrophic gastritis; (c) first degree relatives of patients with gastric cancer; (d) patients with unexplained iron deficiency anaemia; and (e) patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Recurrent abdominal pain in children is not an indication for a "test and treat" strategy if other causes are excluded. Eradication of H pylori infection (a) does not cause gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or exacerbate GORD, and (b) may prevent peptic ulcer in patients who are naïve users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). H pylori eradication is less effective than proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment in preventing ulcer recurrence in long term NSAID users. In primary care a test and treat strategy using a non-invasive test is recommended in adult patients with persistent dyspepsia under the age of 45. The urea breath test, stool antigen tests, and serological kits with a high accuracy are non-invasive tests which should be used for the diagnosis of H pylori infection. Triple therapy using a PPI with clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole given twice daily remains the recommended first choice treatment. Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy, if available, is also a first choice treatment option. Rescue treatment should be based on antimicrobial susceptibility.
The global burden of gastric cancer is considerable but varies geographically. Eradication of H pylori infection has the potential to reduce the risk of gastric cancer development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One-week low-dose proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies have usually proved to be effective treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection.
To investigate the eradication efficacy, safety profile and patient compliance of two triple therapies containing a standard dose of rabeprazole and a new fluoroquinolone, levofloxacin.
One hundred patients referred to us for gastroscopy, who were H. pylori-positive, were consecutively recruited in a prospective, open-label study. The enrolled patients were randomised to receive a seven-day course of rabeprazole 20 mg o.d. plus levofloxacin 500 mg o.d. and either amoxycillin 1 g b.d. (RLA group) or tinidazole 500 mg b.d. (RLT group). Their H. pylori status was assessed by means of histology and rapid urease test at entry, and by 13C-urea breath test 8 weeks after the end of treatment.
All 100 enrolled patients completed the study. Forty-six of 50 patients treated with RLA (both PP and ITT analysis: 92%; 95% CI: 81-98%) and 45 of 50 with RLT (both PP and ITT analysis: 90%: 95% CI: 78-97%), became H. pylori-negative. Slight or mild side-effects occurred in 4 (8%) patients of the RLA group and in 5 (10%) of the RLT group.
This study demonstrates the efficacy of two 1-week rabeprazole-based triple therapies including levofloxacin to eradicate H. pylori. These regimens prove to be safe, well-tolerated, and achieved good eradication rates. Levofloxacin may be an effective alternative to clarithromycin in triple therapy regimens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A standard third-line treatment is lacking, and European guidelines recommend performing culture in these patients. However, the use of this procedure as 'routine practice' is definitively not feasible.
To evaluate the eradication rate of a 10-day levofloxacin-based triple therapy in patients who have failed two eradication courses for Helicobacter pylori.
A total of 151 patients with persistent Helicobacter pylori infection after two treatments were studied. Patients were considered positive if two of three endoscopic tests were positive. Susceptibility testing was also performed. Patients received a standard dose of proton-pump inhibitors twice daily, levofloxacin 250 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, for 10 days. Endoscopic follow-up was carried out 4-6 weeks after the end of eradication therapy.
About 76% (95% CI: 68.8-82.3), and 85% (95% CI: 77.5-89.7) of patients were eradicated according to intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis, respectively. Eradication rates of the strains showed as 92% (95% CI: 83.2-96.7) of those resistant to both metronidazole and clarithromycin but susceptible to levofloxacin.
In patients who failed previous regimens, the 10-day levofloxacin-based triple therapy is safe and effective, allowing eradication in almost 80% of the patients.
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