The complexity of implementing culture change practices in nursing homes.
ABSTRACT The culture change (CC) movement aims to transform the traditional nursing home (NH) that is institutional in design with hierarchical management structure into a homelike environment that empowers residents and frontline staff. This study examines differences in adoption of CC practices according to a NH's self-reported extent of CC implementation and its duration of CC adoption. Furthermore, it examines differences in adoption by whether a CC practice is considered less versus more complex, using complexity theory as the theoretical framework for this classification.
Using data from a 2007 Commonwealth-funded study, we analyzed a national sample of 291 US nursing homes that identified as being "for the most part" or "completely" CC facilities for "1 to 3 years" or "3+ years." Also, using a complexity theory framework, we ranked 16 practices commonly associated with CC as low, moderately, or highly complex based on level of agreement needed to actuate the process (number of parties involved) and the certainty of intended outcomes. We then examined the prevalence of CC-associated practices in relation to their complexity and the extent and duration of a NH's CC adoption.
We found practices ranked as less complex were implemented more frequently in NHs with both shorter and longer durations of CC adoption. However, more complex CC practices were more prevalent among NHs reporting "complete" adoption for 3+ years versus 1 to 3 years. This was not observed in NHs reporting having CC "for the most part."
Less complex practices may be more economical and easier to implement. These early successes may result in sufficient momentum so that more complex change can follow. A nursing home that more completely embraces the culture change movement may be more likely to attempt these complex changes.
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ABSTRACT: There is a need for person-centred approaches and empowerment of staff within the residential care for older people; a movement called 'culture change'. There is however no single path for achieving culture change. With the aim of increasing understandings about cultural change processes and the promotion of cultural values and norms associated with person-centred practices, this article presents an action research project set on a unit in the Netherlands providing care for older people with dementia. The project is presented as a case study. This study examines what has contributed to the improvement of participation of older people with dementia in daily occupational and leisure activities according to practitioners. Data was collected by participant observation, interviews and focus groups. The results show that simultaneous to the improvement of the older people's involvement in daily activities a cultural transformation took place and that the care became more person-centred. Spontaneous interactions and responses rather than planned interventions, analysis and reflection contributed to this. Furthermore, it proved to be beneficial that the process of change and the facilitation of that process reflected the same values as those underlying the cultural change. It is concluded that changes arise from dynamic, interactive and non-linear processes which are complex in nature and difficult to predict and to control. Nevertheless, managers and facilitators can facilitate such change by generating movement through the introduction of small focused projects that meet the stakeholders' needs, by creating conditions for interaction and sense making, and by promoting the new desired cultural values.Health care analysis : HCA : journal of health philosophy and policy. 07/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of the Study: To describe key adaptive challenges and leadership behaviors to implement culture change for person-directed care. The study design was a qualitative, observational study of nursing home staff perceptions of the implementation of culture change in each of 3 nursing homes. We conducted 7 focus groups of licensed and unlicensed nursing staff, medical care providers, and administrators. Questions explored perceptions of facilitators and barriers to culture change. Using a template organizing style of analysis with immersion/crystallization, themes of barriers and facilitators were coded for adaptive challenges and leadership. Six key themes emerged, including relationships, standards and expectations, motivation and vision, workload, respect of personhood, and physical environment. Within each theme, participants identified barriers that were adaptive challenges and facilitators that were examples of adaptive leadership. Commonly identified challenges were how to provide person-directed care in the context of extant rules or policies or how to develop staff motivated to provide person-directed care. Imple- menting culture change requires the recognition of adaptive challenges for which there are no technical solutions, but which require reframing of norms and expectations, and the development of novel and flexible solutions. Managers and administrators seeking to implement person-directed care will need to consider the role of adaptive leadership to address these adaptive challenges.The Gerontologist 01/2014; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the association between organizational context and research utilization in German residential long term care (LTC), we translated three Canadian assessment instruments: the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), Estabrooks' Kinds of Research Utilization (RU) items and the Conceptual Research Utilization Scale. Target groups for the tools were health care aides (HCAs), registered nurses (RNs), allied health professionals (AHPs), clinical specialists and care managers. Through a cognitive debriefing process, we assessed response processes validity--an initial stage of validity, necessary before more advanced validity assessment. We included 39 participants (16 HCAs, 5 RNs, 7 AHPs, 5 specialists and 6 managers) from five residential LTC facilities. We created lists of questionnaire items containing problematic items plus items randomly selected from the pool of remaining items. After participants completed the questionnaires, we conducted individual semi-structured cognitive interviews using verbal probing. We asked participants to reflect on their answers for list items in detail. Participants' answers were compared to concept maps defining the instrument concepts in detail. If at least two participants gave answers not matching concept map definitions, items were revised and re-tested with new target group participants. Cognitive debriefings started with HCAs. Based on the first round, we modified 4 of 58 ACT items, 1 ACT item stem and all 8 items of the RU tools. All items were understood by participants after another two rounds. We included revised HCA ACT items in the questionnaires for the other provider groups. In the RU tools for the other provider groups, we used different wording than the HCA version, as was done in the original English instruments. Only one cognitive debriefing round was needed with each of the other provider groups. Cognitive debriefing is essential to detect and respond to problematic instrument items, particularly when translating instruments for heterogeneous, less well educated provider groups such as HCAs. Cognitive debriefing is an important step in research tool development and a vital component of establishing response process validity evidence. Publishing cognitive debriefing results helps researchers to determine potentially critical elements of the translated tools and assists with interpreting scores.BMC Research Notes 01/2014; 7(1):67.