Increased concentrations of estrogen metabolites (catecholestrogens) have been found in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but the exact patho-etiology remains elusive.
The binding of antibodies from the sera of RA patients and control subjects to native and modified DNA was studied by direct binding and inhibition ELISA, quantitative precipitin titration. Experimentally induced antibodies were also checked to detect oxidative lesions in the DNA as well as for the estimation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in different fluids of RA.
Anti-DNA IgG from RA sera, exhibited increased recognition of modified DNA than native DNA (nDNA; P < 0.001). The relative affinity of anti-DNA antibodies for modified and nDNA was in the order of 1.85 × 10(-7), 1.23 × 10(-7), and 1.2 × 10(-6). Samples of DNA from RA patients showed a significant inhibition in the induced antibody activity in comparison to DNA isolates from controls (P < 0.001). The concentration of 8-OHdG evaluated by induced antibody in RA patients was found to be significantly higher than controls ((P < 0.0001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05).
High binding of modified DNA with the IgG from RA patient might explain possible antigenic role of 4-OHE(2)-modified DNA in the production of anti-DNA antibodies. In addition, the induced antibodies have been shown to represent an alternative immunochemical probe to detect oxidative lesions in DNA as well as for the estimation of 8-OHdG levels in different body fluid of RA patients, which may be used as marker in the diagnosis of the disease.
"Besides various studies investigating urinary concentration of the downstream mitogenic estrogen metabolites (16 α-OHE1, 2-OHE2, and 4-OHE2) in cancer  and autoimmune diseases , data from our laboratory demonstrate that estrogen metabolites especially catecholestrogens (2- and 4-hydroxylated estrogens) play important role in cancer [11, 12] as well as in various autoimmune diseases including RA [37–40]. It has been found that CE-DNA was highly recognized not only by circulating cancer autoantibodies [11, 12] but also by RA  and SLE autoantibodies [37–39], indicating the possible participation of CE-DNA in the pathogenesis of cancer and RA. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen metabolites have been implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cancer, although the mechanism remains unestablished. Some estrogen metabolites, which are used for the assessment of cancer risk, play an important role in RA. The pathways by which malignancies associated with RA remain elusive. Possible mechanism involves enzymatic or nonenzymatic oxidation of estrogen into catecholestrogen metabolites through semiquinone and quinone redox cycle to produce free radicals that can cause DNA modifications. Modifications of DNA alter its immunogenicity and trigger various immune responses leading to elevated levels of cancer and RA antibodies. However, the role of different estrogen metabolites as a mediator of immune response cannot be ruled out in various immune-related diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidatively damaged DNA is implicated in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases as well as aging. Several methods have been developed to detect oxidatively damaged DNA. They include chromatographic techniques, the Comet assay, (32)P-postlabelling and immunochemical methods that use antibodies to detect oxidized lesions. In this review, we discuss the detection of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-29-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), the most abundant oxidized nucleoside. This lesion is frequently used as a marker of exposure to oxidants, including environmental pollutants, as well as a potential marker of disease progression. We concentrate on studies published between the years 2000 and 2011 that used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry to detect 8-oxodG in humans, laboratory animals and in cell lines. Oxidative damage observed in these organisms resulted from disease, exposure to environmental pollutants or from in vitro treatment with various chemical and physical factors.
Free Radical Research 11/2011; 46(4):492-522. DOI:10.3109/10715762.2011.632415 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catecholestrogens [4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE(2))] have been implicated in human carcinogenesis, although the mechanism remains unestablished. In this study pUC 18 plasmid DNA was modified with 4-OHE(2) and nitric oxide (NO). The modification induced in native DNA exhibited hyperchromicity, single strand breaks, damage to restriction sites, modification of bases, decrease in Tm and change in ellipticity. Modified DNA was found to be highly immunogenic in experimental animal, eliciting high titer antibodies. Circulating cancer autoantibodies showed preferable recognition of 4-OHE(2)-NO-DNA over native form (p < 0.001) and the oxidative epitopes on the DNA isolates from cancer patients were immunochemically detected by using experimentally induced anti-4-OHE(2)-NO-DNA antibodies as a probe. Preferential recognition of 4-OHE(2)-NO-DNA by cancer autoantibodies coupled with enhanced binding of induced antibodies to DNA isolated from cancer patients is an indicative of oxidative stress induced DNA damage in cancer. Possible involvement of unique epitopes on modified DNA in cancer autoantibody induction has been suggested.
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