Behavior, brain, and genome in genomic disorders: finding the correspondences.
ABSTRACT Within the last decade or so, there has been an acceleration of research attempting to connect specific genetic lesions to the patterns of brain structure and activation. This article comments on observations that have been made based on these recent data and discusses their importance for the field of investigations into developmental disorders.
In making these observations, the authors focus on one specific genomic lesion, the well-studied, yet still incompletely understood, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.
The authors demonstrate the degree of variability in the phenotype that occurs at both the brain and behavioral levels of genomic disorders and describe how this variability is, on close inspection, represented at the genomic level.
The authors emphasize the importance of combining genetic/genomic analyses and neuroimaging for research and for future clinical diagnostic purposes and for the purposes of developing individualized, patient-tailored treatment and remediation approaches.
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ABSTRACT: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is caused by a submicroscopic deletion on the long arm of chromosome 22 and affects approximately 1 in 4000 persons, making it the second most prevalent genetic syndrome after Down syndrome and the most common genetic syndrome associated with cleft palate. Most of the 22q11.2 deletion cases are new occurrences or sporadic; however, in about 10 % of families, the deletion is inherited and other family members are affected or at risk for passing this deletion to their children. This report describes a 1.5 years-old male child with clinical signs of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) presented with heart defect, soft cleft palate, developmental delay, acrocephaly, seizure, MRI abnormalities and descriptive facial feature, such as hypertelorism. Array-CGH test was done to confirm the diagnosis; the result revealed a 2.6 Mbp deletion in 22q11.2 chromosome that containing TBX1 and COMT genes. Our data suggest that haploinsufficiency of TBX1 gene is probably a major contributor to some of the syndrome characteristic signs, such as heart defect. Because of developmental delay and dysmorphic facial feature were observed in the index's mother and relatives, inherited autosomal dominant form of VCF is probable, and MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) test should be performed for parents to estimate the recurrent risk in next pregnancy.Journal of research in medical sciences 03/2012; 17(3):310-2. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We present a 12-year-old girl with karyotype 46,XX. A comparative genomic hybridization array revealed a 3.172-Mb microduplication on 22q11.2. This chromosome 22q11.2 region microduplication has been described in patients with variable phenotypes; a large majority of them have identical 3-Mb duplications. The girl presented mild mental motor retardation, facial dysmorphism consisting of a long narrow face, widely spaced eyes, downslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal base, short philtrum, thin upper lip, micro/retrognathia, low set and retroverted ears, microcephaly, high-arched palate, hypoplastic teeth, and hypernasal speech. She had delayed psychomotor development and behavioral problems. Molecular characterization of patients differs greatly among reports and detailed molecular characterization and documentation are needed to better understand the effects of these duplications. This description of the phenotype of a patient with microduplication on 22q11.2 will contribute to the growing knowledge regarding deletions and duplications of the 22q11.2 region; this is important to conclude whether 22q11.2 duplication is a microduplication syndrome or not.Genetics and molecular research: GMR 01/2011; 10(3):2148-54. DOI:10.4238/vol10-3gmr1339 · 0.85 Impact Factor