Surrogate markers of subtle renal injury in patients with visceral leishmaniasis.
ABSTRACT Sudanese visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease of children that is characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, and renal injury. Microalbuminuria (MA) and urinary retinol binding protein (urRBP) are useful markers for glomerular and tubular dysfunctions, respectively. We report the prevalence of subtle renal injury in 88 parasitologically confirmed VL patients in a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. Blood and urine were collected before treatment for hematological, biochemical profiles in addition to MA and urRBP measurement using competitive solid phase, sandwich enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoturbidometry. All the patients had normal serum urea and creatinine levels and no detectable urRBP. However, 40% of the patients had MA detected by ELISA, and 42% were reactive with turbidometry. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for MA turbidometric technique were calculated as 100%; 96%; 95% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion; subtle renal injury in VL is mainly glomerular. Turbidometry for MA measurement is a simple, inexpensive, sensitive, and specific technique with high predictive values.