Influence of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism at the Main Ribavirin Transporter Gene on the Rapid Virological Response to Pegylated Interferon-Ribavirin Therapy in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection
ABSTRACT The equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is the main protein involved in ribavirin cellular uptake. Polymorphisms at the ENT1 gene may influence ribavirin activity as part of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. A retrospective study was conducted in 109 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who were infected with HCV genotypes 1 or 4 who had received pegylated interferon (pegIFN)-ribavirin. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the ENT1 gene were examined using TaqMan 5'-nuclease assays. In the study population, allelic frequencies at rs760370 were as follows: A3 (43 [39%] of 109 patients), AG (50 [46%] of 109 patients), and GG (16 [15%] of 109 patients). Achievement of rapid virological response was more frequent in GG carriers than in AA/AG carriers (50% vs 17%, respectively; P = .007). In multivariate analysis, the GG genotype (odds ratio [OR], 15.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-92.2; P < .002), a baseline serum HCV-RNA level <600,000 IU/mL (OR, 45.7; 95% CI, 8.7-240.5; P <.001) and a serum ribavirin trough concentration >2.5 μg/mL (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-17.1; P < .016) were associated with rapid virological response. When 2 or more of these factors were present, positive and negative predictive values of rapid virological response were 65% and 91%, respectively. In summary, a SNP rs760370A→G at the ENT1 gene influences the chance of rapid virological response to pegIFN-ribavirin therapy in HIV-infected patients with chronic HCV infection due to HCV genotypes 1 or 4, most likely modulating intracellular ribavirin exposure within hepatocytes.
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ABSTRACT: In 2011 direct-acting antivirals, including telaprevir, have been developed to achieve a better antiviral effect. It was reported that telaprevir is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and cytochrome P450 3A4. The aim of this retrospective study was the evaluation of the influence of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes (ABCB1, SLC28A2/3, SLC29A1) involved in TLV and RBV transport and their correlation with plasma TLV drug exposure at 1 month of therapy. We also investigated the association of a SNP in ABCB11 gene, whose role in TLV transport was not yet shown. Twenty-nine HCV-1 patients treated with telaprevir, ribavirin and pegylated-interferon-α were retrospectively analyzed; allelic discrimination was performed by real-time PCR. Telaprevir Ctrough levels were influenced by Metavir score (P = 0.023), ABCB1 2677 G>T (P = 0.006), ABCB1 1236 C>T (P = 0.015) and ABCB11 1131 T>C (P = 0.033) SNPs. Regarding ABCB1 3435 C>T, a not statistically significant trend in telaprevir plasma concentration was observed. Metavir score (P = 0.002, OR –336; 95% CI –535;–138), ABCB1 2677 (P = 0.020, OR 497; 95% CI 86; 910), ABCB11 1131 (P = 0.002, OR 641; 95% CI 259;1023) and CNT2 -146 (P = 0.006, OR –426; 95% CI –721;–132) were able to predict telaprevir plasma levels in the regression analysis. Other SNPs showed no association. This study reveals BSEP implication in telaprevir transport and confirms the involvement and influence of P-glycoprotein on telaprevir plasma levels. To date, no similar data concerning pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics were published, but further studies in different and bigger cohorts are needed.Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy 11/2014; 69. DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2014.11.007 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis C infection is associated with increased expression of interferon-sensitive genes (ISGs) in the liver, which is, paradoxically, correlated with the nonresponse to interferon (IFN)-based therapies. In the present study PHHs were isolated from HCV-infected or uninfected patients and stimulated with the TLR1-9 ligands for 6-24 h. Expression of cytokines and ISGs was determined by ELISA and qRT-PCR. A comparative analysis was performed for TLR3 signalling, which was also correlated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to HCV pathogenesis. TLR-activated PHHs produced pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, whereas IFNs were exclusively induced by TLR3 stimulation. Here, IL-29 and IL-28A were significantly highly expressed than IFN-α and IFN-β. TLR3-induced IFN response was enhanced in hepatocytes isolated from patients with HCV infection. This hyper-responsiveness could be mimicked in naïve PHHs consistently stimulated with low dose of poly I:C, but not Guardiquimod. The higher responsiveness in PHH isolated from HCV-infected patients could be partially explained by higher frequencies of unfavourable SNP alleles of different SNPs associated with HCV progression and treatment outcome. These data suggest that durable activation of TLR3 but not TLR7, by low doses of viral replicative intermediates, increases the sensitivity to viral invasion. These findings shed new light on the relevance of TLR3 in the pathogenesis of HCV and may provide a possible explanation for the increased ISG expression during chronic HCV infection, the so-called IFN paradox.Journal of Viral Hepatitis 10/2013; DOI:10.1111/jvh.12174 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Host genetic factors influence treatment responses to antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We retrospectively investigated associations between host genetic markers and treatment-induced virologic responses to dual therapy with interferon-α and ribavirin in chronically infected HCV genotype 1 (g1)- and genotype 3 (g3)-infected individuals. A total of 171 patients (89 HCV g1 and 82 HCV g3 infected) were investigated for genetic markers influencing treatment-induced sustained virologic response (SVR). Overall, SVR was observed for 46/89 (52%) HCV g1- and 57/82 (70%) HCV g3-infected patients. Of the 4 interleukin 28B (IL28B) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs12979860 was the host genetic marker most significantly associated with failure to achieve an SVR in HCV g1-infected individuals [P=3.83×10(-4); odds ratio (OR)=5.61; confidence interval (CI)=2.07-15.18] and gave a positive predictive value for treatment failure of 81.3% for minor homozygotes (TT). Using additive (P=3.54×10(-4)) and dominant models (P=3.83×10(-4)), a dosage effect of the T allele was observed, with the dominance term not significant for this SNP. Logistic regression showed an association between HLA-C1/C1 and rapid virologic response in HCV g1 infections with an OR relative to the heterozygote of 10.0 (95% CI: 1.6-62.5, P=0.014). HLA-C2 homozygosity was a significant predictor of nonresponse to treatment in HCV g1-infected individuals (P=0.023).Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 09/2014; 35(2). DOI:10.1089/jir.2014.0088 · 3.90 Impact Factor