Suppression of liver regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation in hepatocyte-targeted glypican 3 transgenic mice.
ABSTRACT Glypican 3 (GPC3) belongs to a family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. GPC3 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma. Loss-of-function mutations of GPC3 result in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, an X-linked disorder characterized by overgrowth of multiple organs, including the liver. Our previous study showed that GPC3 plays a negative regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation, and this effect may involve CD81, a cell membrane tetraspanin. To further investigate GPC3 in vivo, we engineered transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing GPC3 in the liver under the control of the albumin promoter. GPC3 TG mice with hepatocyte-targeted, overexpressed GPC3 developed normally in comparison with their nontransgenic littermates but had a suppressed rate of hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Moreover, gene array analysis revealed a series of changes in the gene expression profiles in TG mice (both in normal mice and during liver regeneration). In unoperated GPC3 TG mice, there was overexpression of runt related transcription factor 3 (7.6-fold), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (2.5-fold), GABA A receptor (2.9-fold), and wingless-related MMTV integration site 7B (2.8-fold). There was down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (8.4-fold), Rab2 (5.6-fold), beta-catenin (1.7-fold), transforming growth factor beta type I (3.1-fold), nodal (1.8-fold), and yes-associated protein (1.4-fold). Changes after hepatectomy included decreased expression in several cell cycle-related genes. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that in GPC3 TG mice, hepatocyte overexpression of GPC3 suppresses hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration and alters gene expression profiles, and potential cell cycle-related proteins and multiple other pathways are involved and affected.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence supports that tumor growth and cancer relapse are driven by cancer stem cells. Our previous work has demonstrated the existence of CD90(+) liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nevertheless, the characteristics of these cells are still poorly understood. In this study, we employed a more sensitive RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the gene expression profiling of CD90(+) cells sorted from tumor (CD90(+)CSCs) with parallel non-tumorous liver tissues (CD90(+)NTSCs) and elucidate the roles of putative target genes in hepatocarcinogenesis. CD90(+) cells were sorted respectively from tumor and adjacent non-tumorous human liver tissues using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The amplified RNAs of CD90(+) cells from 3 HCC patients were subjected to RNA-Seq analysis. A differential gene expression profile was established between CD90(+)CSCs and CD90(+)NTSCs, and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) on the same set of amplified RNAs, and further confirmed in an independent cohort of 12 HCC patients. Five hundred genes were differentially expressed (119 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes) between CD90(+)CSCs and CD90(+)NTSCs. Gene ontology analysis indicated that the over-expressed genes in CD90(+)CSCs were associated with inflammation, drug resistance and lipid metabolism. Among the differentially expressed genes, glypican-3 (GPC3), a member of glypican family, was markedly elevated in CD90(+)CSCs compared to CD90(+)NTSCs. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GPC3 was highly expressed in forty-two human liver tumor tissues but absent in adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Flow cytometry indicated that GPC3 was highly expressed in liver CD90(+)CSCs and mature cancer cells in liver cancer cell lines and human liver tumor tissues. Furthermore, GPC3 expression was positively correlated with the number of CD90(+)CSCs in liver tumor tissues. The identified genes, such as GPC3 that are distinctly expressed in liver CD90(+)CSCs, may be promising gene candidates for HCC therapy without inducing damages to normal liver stem cells.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37159. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: The altered expression of α1 and β3 subunits of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor is related to the hepatitis C virus infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A) receptors activity was observed in several chronic hepatitis failures, including hepatitis C. The expression of GABA A receptor subunits α1 and β3 was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) originated from healthy donors. The aim of the study was to evaluate if GABA A α1 and β3 expression can also be observed in PBMCs from chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and to evaluate a possible association between their expression and the course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. GABA A α1- and β3-specific mRNAs presence and a protein expression in PBMCs from healthy donors and CHC patients were screened by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. In patients, HCV RNA was determined in sera and PBMCs. It was shown that GABA A α1 and β3 expression was significantly different in PBMCs from CHC patients and healthy donors. In comparison to healthy donors, CHC patients were found to present an increase in the expression of GABA A α1 subunit and a decrease in the expression of β3 subunit in their PBMCs. The modulation of α1 and β3 GABA A receptors subunits expression in PBMCs may be associated with ongoing or past HCV infection.European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2011; 31(7):1537-42. · 2.86 Impact Factor