Averting inflammation by targeting the cytokine environment.

Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Wagistrasse 27, 8952 Zürich, Switzerland.
dressNature Reviews Drug Discovery (Impact Factor: 37.23). 09/2010; 9(9):703-18. DOI: 10.1038/nrd2805
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cytokines are key instigators and regulators of immune responses and therefore hold great potential as targets for new therapeutic strategies. However, the selection of which cytokines to target, and in particular the identification of which cytokines regulate the rate-limiting steps of disease pathways, is crucial to the success of such strategies. Moreover, balancing the need for ablating pathological inflammatory responses and simultaneously maintaining the ability to control infectious agents is a key consideration. Recent advances in our understanding of cytokine networks, as well as technical progress in blocking cytokines in vivo, are likely to be a source for new drugs that can control chronic inflammatory diseases.

Download full-text


Available from: Martin F Bachmann, Jun 18, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flavonoids from lemongrass – Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf – leaves infusion, a commonly consumed beverage for the treatment of inflammatory-related conditions, were investigated in this work. Luteolin O-, C- and O,C-glycosides were isolated and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, being the cassiaoccidentalin B structure fully characterized for the first time in lemongrass. The anti-inflammatory activity of luteolin and its glycosides was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Luteolin glycosides demonstrated less cytotoxicity than luteolin itself. Although glycosylation decreases luteolin anti-inflammatory properties, being higher to C-glycosylation, an inhibitory effect on inflammatory mediator production (nitric oxide and IL-1β) was verified for the luteolin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside, without cytotoxic effects. Therefore, luteolin glycosides from lemongrass infusion are evidenced as a less toxic alternative to current anti-inflammatory drugs with promising use in pharmaceutical and food supplement industries. Additionally, this work establishes structure–activity relationships, which constitutes valuable information in the design of anti-inflammatory luteolin glycosides devoid of toxicity.
    Journal of Functional Foods 09/2014; 10:436–443. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.07.003 · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf leaves infusion is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, however little is known about their bio-active compounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: Investigate the compounds responsible for anti-inflammatory potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Cy) on cytokines production induced by lipopolysaccharide in human and mouse macrophages, and the action mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An essential oil-free infusion of Cy was prepared and polyphenol-rich fractions (PFs) were obtained from it by column chromatography. Chlorogenic acid was identified, by HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS(n). The expression of cytokines, namely TNF-α and CCL5, was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophages. Activation of nuclear factor-κB, a master regulator of inflammation, was investigated by Western blot and gene reporter assay. Proteasome activity was assessed using a fluorogenic peptide. RESULTS: Cymbopogon citratus extract and its polyphenols inhibited the cytokine production on human macrophages. This supports the anti-inflammatory activity of Cy polyphenols in physiologically relevant cells. Concerning the effect on the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway, the results pointed to an inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB activation by Cy and PFs. Chlorogenic acid was identified, by HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS(n), as the main phenolic acid of the Cy infusion, and it demonstrated to be, at least in part, responsible by that effect. Additionally, it was verified for the first time, that Cy and PFs inhibited the proteasome activity, a complex that controls NF-κB activation, having CGA a strong contribution. CONCLUSIONS: The results evidenced, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory properties of Cymbopogon citratus through proteasome inhibition and, consequently NF-κB pathway and cytokine expression. Additionally, Cy polyphenols, in particular chlorogenic acid, were highlighted as bio-active compounds.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 04/2013; 148(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.077 · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Elevated concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are detected in pathologies characterized by chronic inflammation. Whether TNF-α plays a role in manipulating the host's immune system toward generating an immunosuppressive milieu, typical of ongoing chronic inflammation, is unclear. Here we showed that TNF-α exhibited a dual function during chronic inflammation: arresting differentiation of immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) primarily via the S100A8 and S100A9 inflammatory proteins and their corresponding receptor (RAGE) and augmenting MDSC suppressive activity. These functions led to in vivo T and NK cell dysfunction accompanied by T cell antigen receptor ζ chain downregulation. Furthermore, administration of etanercept (TNF-α antagonist) during early chronic inflammatory stages reduced MDSCs' suppressive activity and enhanced their maturation into dendritic cells and macrophages, resulting in the restoration of in vivo immune functions and recovery of ζ chain expression. Thus, TNF has a fundamental role in promoting an immunosuppressive environment generated during chronic inflammation.
    Immunity 03/2013; 25(3). DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2013.02.007 · 19.75 Impact Factor