Breast implant infections: is cefazolin enough?
ABSTRACT Bacterial infection is a well-known risk of breast implant surgery, occurring in 2.0 to 2.5 percent of cosmetic cases and up to 20 percent of reconstructive cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a first-generation cephalosporin for perioperative prophylaxis; however, no guidelines exist for the empiric treatment of established breast implant infections. A recent increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections has prompted interest in using alternative antibiotics with anti-methicillin-resistant S. aureus activity for both prophylactic and empiric therapy. The goal of the present study was to assess the bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility of breast implant-related infections at two tertiary care hospitals in the Texas Medical Center to determine whether a baseline for empiric therapy for breast implant infections could be established.
A retrospective review of patients who developed periprosthetic infections within 1 month after breast implant placement between 2001 and 2006 was completed. One hundred six patients with 116 infected breasts were identified. Patients were included in the study only if they had documented culture data.
Thirty-one breasts in 26 patients met inclusion criteria. Sixty-seven percent of the infected breasts had S. aureus infections; of these, 68 percent were methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections and 32 percent were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus infections. We noted Gram-negative rods and sterile cultures in 6 percent and 26 percent of breasts, respectively.
Because of the high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections in breast implant recipients, we believe that choosing an antibiotic with anti-methicillin-resistant S. aureus activity is justified for empiric treatment of breast implant infections, until culture and sensitivity data, if obtained, become available.
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial infection is a well-known risk of breast implant surgery. It is typically caused by bacterial skin flora, specifically Staphylococcus aureus and the coagulase negative staphylococci. There have been infrequent reports of breast implant infection caused by the atypical mycobacteria, of which Mycobacterium canariasense not yet reported in the literature.BMC Infectious Diseases 05/2014; 14(1):238. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. The rate of postmastectomy tissue expander (TE) infection remains excessively high, ranging between 2% and 24%. We hypothesized that current perioperative antimicrobial regimens utilized for breast TE reconstruction may be outdated as a result of recent changes in microflora and susceptibility patterns. Design and methods. We reviewed the records of all patients who had a TE reconstructive procedure and developed a definite breast TE infection between 2003 and 2010 at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Antimicrobials were stratified into 3 groups: systemic perioperative, local irrigation, and oral immediate postoperative antimicrobials. These were considered discordant if they did not target the isolated organisms, while a breakthrough infection was defined as an infection that occurred despite concordant antimicrobial coverage. Results. Overall, 75 patients with a definite TE infection were identified. The most common organisms identified were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (29%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (15%), and gram-negative rods (26%). The use of systemic perioperative antimicrobials was deemed discordant in 51% of the cases. Although 79% of the patients received broad-spectrum perioperative local antimicrobial irrigation, 63% developed a breakthrough infection. Even though 61% received oral postoperative prophylactic antimicrobials, 63% of the times they were deemed discordant. Conclusions. Contrary to the proven effectiveness of a single dose of perioperative antibiotics, the common use of local antimicrobial irrigation and prolonged postoperative oral antibiotics appears to be an inadequate component of our preventive armamentarium. Also, because methicillin-resistant staphylococcal and pseudomonal infections occurred approximately 60% of the time, at institutions that have observed an increase of these organisms, it may be prudent that perioperative antimicrobials target these microorganisms.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 01/2014; 35(1):75-81. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with solid tumors frequently undergo surgical procedures and develop procedure-related infections. We sought to describe the current microbiologic spectrum of infections at various sites following common surgical procedures. This was a retrospective review of microbiologic data between January 2011 and February 2012. The sites studied were those associated with breast cancer surgery, thoracotomy, craniotomy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion, and abdominal/pelvic surgery. Only patients with solid tumors were included. A total of 368 surgical site infections (SSIs) were identified (68 breast cancer related; 91 thoracotomy related; 45 craniotomy related; 75 PEG-tube insertion related; and 89 abdominal/pelvic surgery related). Of these, 58% were monomicrobial and 42% were polymicrobial. Overall, 85% of the 215 monomicrobial infections were caused by Gram-positive organisms and 13% by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen in monomicrobial infections (150 of 215, 70%). Sixty (40%) of these staphylococcal isolates were methicillin resistant (MRSA), and 65% had a vancomycin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥1.0 µg/ml. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the predominant GNB pathogen (19 of 27, 70%). Staphylococci were also the predominant pathogens in polymicrobial infections, while P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were the predominant GNB. Overall, 35% of isolates from polymicrobial infections were GNB. Cephalosporins (e.g., cefazolin) or amoxicillin/clavulanate was used most often for surgical prophylaxis, and 47% of organisms from monomicrobial infections (MRSA, P. aeruginosa) were resistant to them. A similar resistance pattern was observed in polymicrobial infections. Staphylococcus species were isolated most often from the sites studied. Polymicrobial infections (42%) and GNB monomicrobial infections (13%) were relatively frequent causes of SSIs. Many of these infections were caused by organisms that are resistant to agents commonly used for surgical prophylaxis. Additionally, 65% of staphylococcal isolates had a vancomycin MIC ≥1.0 µg/ml, suggesting the need for alternative therapeutic agents.Infectious diseases and therapy. 11/2014;