Fabrication of a two-level tumor bone repair biomaterial based on a rapid prototyping technique.
ABSTRACT After the removal of the giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone, it is necessary to fill the defects with adequate biomaterials. A new functional bone repair material with both stimulating osteoblast growth and inhibiting osteoclast activity has been developed with phosphorylated chitosan (P-chitosan) and disodium (1 --> 4)-2-deoxy-2-sulfoamino-beta-D-glucopyranuronan (S-chitosan) as the additives of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/calcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds based on a double-nozzle low-temperature deposition manufacturing technique. A computer-assisted design model was used and the optimal fabrication parameters were determined through the manipulation of a pure PLGA/TCP system. The microscopic structures, water absorbability and mechanical properties of the samples with different P-chitosan and S-chitosan concentrations were characterized correspondingly. The results suggested that this unique composite porous scaffold material is a potential candidate for the repair of large bone defects after a surgical removal of GCT.
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ABSTRACT: Bone graft substitutes are commonly used to treat large bone defects, particularly if they can additionally act as a local delivery system for therapeutic agents capable of enhancing bone regeneration. In this study, composite scaffolds made of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) called P/T were fabricated by a low-temperature rapid prototyping technique. In order to optimise the delivery system, two different approaches for loading either the phytomolecule icaritin (ICT) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were developed for an in vivo efficacy study. One was an “incorporating approach” in which the growth factor was incorporated into the scaffold during fabrication, whereas the other was a “coating approach” in which the fabricated scaffold was immersed into a preparative solution containing the growth factor. Scaffolds incorporating these growth factors were termed P/T/ICT and P/T/BMP-2, while scaffolds that had these growth factors coated on to them were named, respectively, P/T + ICT and P/T + BMP-2. A P/T scaffold without any loading was used as the control. The bone regeneration effect of these scaffolds was compared in an ulnar bone defect model in rabbits. Bone regeneration and angiogenesis was evaluated by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging postimplantation. Bone regeneration was better with the P/T/ICT scaffolds with an 83.8% improvement compared with the control, and a 72.0% improvement compared with the P/T/BMP-2 treatment. Although the P/T + BMP-2 scaffold demonstrated, as expected, the best overall bone regeneration, the P/T scaffold with incorporated ICT was shown to be an innovative and cost-effective bioactive scaffold which also significantly enhanced bone regeneration with the potential to be validated for orthopaedic applications.Journal of Orthopaedic Translation. 04/2014; 2(2):91–104.
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ABSTRACT: Advances introduced by additive manufacturing have significantly improved the ability to tailor scaffolds architecture, enhancing the control over microstructural features. This has led to a growing interest in the development of innovative scaffold designs, as testified by the increasing amount of research activities devoted to the understanding of the correlation between scaffold topological features and its resulting properties, in order to find architectures capable to optimally trade-off between often conflicting requirements (such as the biological and the mechanical ones). Main aim of this article is to provide a review and propose a classification of existing methodologies for scaffold design and optimization in order to address key issues and help in deciphering the complex link between design criteria and resulting scaffold properties.Acta biomaterialia 10/2013; · 5.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Limitations associated with the study of cancer biology in vitro, including a lack of extracellular matrix, have prompted an interest in analysing the behaviour of tumour cells in a three-dimensional environment. Such model systems can be used to better understand malignancy and metastasis and a cancer’s response to therapies. We review the materials that have been used in such models to date, including their fabrication techniques and the results from their study in cancer. Despite the variety of materials available, obstacles remain to perfecting an in vitro model system and we outline some of the challenges yet to be overcome.Journal of Materials Science 09/2014; 49(17). · 2.31 Impact Factor