Fabrication of a two-level tumor bone repair biomaterial based on a rapid prototyping technique
ABSTRACT After the removal of the giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone, it is necessary to fill the defects with adequate biomaterials. A new functional bone repair material with both stimulating osteoblast growth and inhibiting osteoclast activity has been developed with phosphorylated chitosan (P-chitosan) and disodium (1 --> 4)-2-deoxy-2-sulfoamino-beta-D-glucopyranuronan (S-chitosan) as the additives of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/calcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds based on a double-nozzle low-temperature deposition manufacturing technique. A computer-assisted design model was used and the optimal fabrication parameters were determined through the manipulation of a pure PLGA/TCP system. The microscopic structures, water absorbability and mechanical properties of the samples with different P-chitosan and S-chitosan concentrations were characterized correspondingly. The results suggested that this unique composite porous scaffold material is a potential candidate for the repair of large bone defects after a surgical removal of GCT.
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ABSTRACT: Steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) may lead to joint collapse and subsequent joint replacement. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid/tricalcium phosphate (P/T) scaffold providing sustained release of icaritin (a metabolite of Epimedium-derived flavonoids) was investigated as a bone defect filler after surgical core-decompression (CD) to prevent femoral head collapse in a bipedal SAON animal model using emu (a large flightless bird). The underlying mechanism on SAON was evaluated using a well-established quadrupedal rabbit model. Fifteen emus were established with SAON, and CD was performed along the femoral neck for the efficacy study. In this CD bone defect, a P/T scaffold with icaritin (P/T/I group) or without icaritin (P/T group) was implanted while no scaffold implantation was used as a control. For the mechanistic study in rabbits, the effects of icaritin and composite scaffolds on bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) recruitment, osteogenesis, and anti-adipogenesis were evaluated. Our efficacy study showed that P/T/I group had the significantly lowest incidence of femoral head collapse, better preserved cartilage and mechanical properties supported by more new bone formation within the bone tunnel. For the mechanistic study, our in vitro tests suggested that icaritin enhanced the expression of osteogenesis related genes COL1α, osteocalcin, RUNX2, and BMP-2 while inhibited adipogenesis related genes C/EBP-ß, PPAR-γ, and aP2 of rabbit BMSCs. Both P/T and P/T/I scaffolds were demonstrated to recruit BMSCs both in vitro and in vivo but a higher expression of migration related gene VCAM1 was only found in P/T/I group in vitro. In conclusion, both efficacy and mechanistic studies show the potential of a bioactive composite porous P/T scaffold incorporating icaritin to enhance bone defect repair after surgical CD and prevent femoral head collapse in a bipedal SAON emu model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Biomaterials 05/2015; 59:125-143. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.04.038 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Limitations associated with the study of cancer biology in vitro, including a lack of extracellular matrix, have prompted an interest in analysing the behaviour of tumour cells in a three-dimensional environment. Such model systems can be used to better understand malignancy and metastasis and a cancer’s response to therapies. We review the materials that have been used in such models to date, including their fabrication techniques and the results from their study in cancer. Despite the variety of materials available, obstacles remain to perfecting an in vitro model system and we outline some of the challenges yet to be overcome.Journal of Materials Science 09/2014; 49(17). DOI:10.1007/s10853-014-8325-x · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone graft substitutes are commonly used to treat large bone defects, particularly if they can additionally act as a local delivery system for therapeutic agents capable of enhancing bone regeneration. In this study, composite scaffolds made of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) called P/T were fabricated by a low-temperature rapid prototyping technique. In order to optimise the delivery system, two different approaches for loading either the phytomolecule icaritin (ICT) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were developed for an in vivo efficacy study. One was an “incorporating approach” in which the growth factor was incorporated into the scaffold during fabrication, whereas the other was a “coating approach” in which the fabricated scaffold was immersed into a preparative solution containing the growth factor. Scaffolds incorporating these growth factors were termed P/T/ICT and P/T/BMP-2, while scaffolds that had these growth factors coated on to them were named, respectively, P/T + ICT and P/T + BMP-2. A P/T scaffold without any loading was used as the control. The bone regeneration effect of these scaffolds was compared in an ulnar bone defect model in rabbits. Bone regeneration and angiogenesis was evaluated by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging postimplantation. Bone regeneration was better with the P/T/ICT scaffolds with an 83.8% improvement compared with the control, and a 72.0% improvement compared with the P/T/BMP-2 treatment. Although the P/T + BMP-2 scaffold demonstrated, as expected, the best overall bone regeneration, the P/T scaffold with incorporated ICT was shown to be an innovative and cost-effective bioactive scaffold which also significantly enhanced bone regeneration with the potential to be validated for orthopaedic applications.04/2014; 2(2):91–104. DOI:10.1016/j.jot.2014.01.002