The use of an acoustic device to identify the epidural space in cattle
Division of Anaesthesiology and Perioperative Intensive Care, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.The Veterinary Journal (Impact Factor: 1.76). 02/2011; 187(2):267-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.01.012
Twelve healthy cattle (weighing 188-835 kg) were placed in stocks and sedated with xylazine. Caudal epidural puncture was performed using an acoustic device that indicated a decrease in resistance with a change in pitch. Lidocaine was injected to verify correct needle placement by assessing needle prick stimuli applied on the left and right side of the tail root and the perineal region, and the loss of tail and anal sphincter tone. Pressure measurements were recorded during penetration of the different tissue layers and in the epidural space. A clear and sudden decrease in the pitch of the acoustic signal was audible in all 12 cattle. All cows showed clinical effects indicating successful epidural anaesthesia. The pressure in the epidural space after puncture was -19±10 mm Hg. The device may be of assistance in identifying the epidural space in cattle.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To measure the pressure profile during caudal extradural puncture and subsequent extradural anaesthesia in cattle and to investigate the presence of extradural pressure waves.Study design Prospective experimental study.Animals Eleven cattle aged 4.1 ± 2.5 years (range 0.8 to 8.8 years), with a body weight of 613 ± 162 kg (range 302–840 kg).Methods Caudal extradural puncture was performed. To measure the extradural pressure profile, the needle was connected to an electronic pressure transducer placed at the height of the base of the tail. The pressure profile was recorded for 3 minutes following extradural puncture. Lack of resistance to injection of saline was assessed. One minute and 10 minutes after extradural anaesthesia with procaine extradural pressure was recorded. Correct extradural needle placement was assessed by clinical response.Results Three minutes after extradural puncture the median pressure was −16 (range −25 to 25) mmHg. Pressure in the extradural space 1 minute after the lack of resistance, 3 seconds after injection, and 10 minutes after injection was −15 (−24 to 33) mmHg, 8 (−17 to 84) mmHg, and −7 (−25 to 27) mmHg respectively. Pressure waves were visible after puncture, after lack of resistance, 3 seconds and 10 minutes after injection, in 4, 6, 8 and 7 cattle respectively. Pressure after testing lack of resistance, after the injection of local anaesthetic, as well as at the end of the measurement, period was significantly higher than baseline. All cattle showed clinical signs indicative of successful extradural needle placement.Conclusion and clinical relevance Extradural pressure was sub-atmospheric in 82% of the animals. Pressure waves were not consistently present before or after extradural injection, which limits their usefulness to confirm correct extradural needle placement. Extradural pressures increase significantly after injection of local anaesthetic solution. However, the clinical significance of the increase in extradural pressures was not clear.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 08/2009; 36(5):495 - 501. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-2995.2009.00475.x · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the ovum pick-up (OPU) technique on animal well-being. Eight dairy heifers were subjected to 4 months of twice-weekly OPU. The physiological response to OPU was recorded in four heifers at two sessions, at the beginning (time 1) and at the end (time 2) of the 4-month period. Heart rates were measured and blood was analysed for cortisol, vasopressin and PG-metabolite before, during (every 5 and 2(1/2) min), and after the OPU sessions. Reactions to each subprocedure of OPU ('restraint', 'epidural', 'device in' and 'puncture') were closely observed. In all heifers, reactions to the OPU procedures were also noted throughout the experimental period, and changes in routine behaviour, oestrous behaviour, body temperature, or other clinical traits were recorded. Subsequent to the experiment, the ovaries and tails were carefully inspected. At time 1, there was an insignificant increase in heart rate and cortisol throughout the OPU procedure. At time 2, these two parameters increased significantly, but both parameters declined to pre-OPU levels 10 min after completion of the procedure. No significant changes were seen in vasopressin or PG-metabolite at time 1 and time 2. Behaviourally, the heifers showed the strongest response to epidural anaesthesia, with a tendency for more intense response during the late 4-month sessions. The response to 'device in' and 'puncture' varied among individuals independently of time. There were no changes in the routine or oestrous behaviour throughout the experiment and no signs of clinical disorders. No major pathological changes were macroscopically seen in the ovaries and tails subsequent to the 4 months of OPU. In conclusion, the heifers showed a response to OPU, mostly to administration of epidural anaesthesia. However, we demonstrated that epidural anaesthesia can be administered in a way causing less discomfort.Reproduction in Domestic Animals 01/2008; 42(6):623-32. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0531.2006.00833.x · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Summary Fifty patients scheduled for surgery under lumbar epidural anaesthesia were included in a study toevaluate the possibility of localising the epidural space solely by means of an acoustic signal. With an experimental set-up, the pressure generated during the epidural puncture procedure was translated into a corresponding acoustic signal. One anaesthetist held the epidural needle with both hands and detected the epidural space by means of this acoustic signal. At the same time, a second anaesthetist applied the loss of resistance technique and functioned as control. In all patients the epidural space was located with the acoustic signal. This was confirmed by conventional loss of resistance in 49 (98%) of the patients; in one patient (2%) it was not. We conclude that it is possible to locate the epidural space using an acoustic signal alone.Anaesthesia 07/2002; 57(8):768 - 772. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2044.2002.02621.x · 3.38 Impact Factor
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