Cause-effect relationships in medicine: a protein network perspective.
ABSTRACT Current target-based drug discovery platforms are not able to predict drug efficacy and the full spectrum of drug effects in organisms. Hence, many experimental drugs do not survive the lengthy and costly process of drug development. Understanding how drugs affect cellular network structures and how the resulting signals are translated into drug effects is extremely important for the discovery of new medicines. This requires a greater understanding of cause-effect relationships at the organism, organ, tissue, cellular, and molecular level. There is a growing recognition that this information must be integrated into discovery paradigms, but a 'road map' for obtaining and integrating information about heterogeneous networks into drug-discovery platforms currently does not exist. This review explores recent network-centered approaches developed to investigate the genesis of medicine and disease effects, specifically highlighting protein-protein interaction network models and their use in cause-effect analyses in medicine.
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ABSTRACT: Despite considerable progress in genome- and proteome-based high-throughput screening methods and in rational drug design, the increase in approved drugs in the past decade did not match the increase of drug development costs. Network description and analysis not only gives a systems-level understanding of drug action and disease complexity, but can also help to improve the efficiency of drug design. We give a comprehensive assessment of the analytical tools of network topology and dynamics. The state-of-the-art use of chemical similarity, protein structure, protein-protein interaction, signaling, genetic interaction and metabolic networks in the discovery of drug targets is summarized. We propose that network targeting follows two basic strategies. The "central hit strategy" selectively targets central node/edges of the flexible networks of infectious agents or cancer cells to kill them. The "network influence strategy" works against other diseases, where an efficient reconfiguration of rigid networks needs to be achieved. It is shown how network techniques can help in the identification of single-target, edgetic, multi-target and allo-network drug target candidates. We review the recent boom in network methods helping hit identification, lead selection optimizing drug efficacy, as well as minimizing side-effects and drug toxicity. Successful network-based drug development strategies are shown through the examples of infections, cancer, metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Summarizing >1200 references we suggest an optimized protocol of network-aided drug development, and provide a list of systems-level hallmarks of drug quality. Finally, we highlight network-related drug development trends helping to achieve these hallmarks by a cohesive, global approach.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 02/2013; · 7.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biomolecules in subnetworks are the focus of a new strategy to develop drugs that halt complex diseases. In this article, the authors use genome-wide association study and linkage data derived from Parkinson's disease studies to illustrate how algorithms that use gene and protein interaction databases reveal subnetworks in biological systems that suggest mechanisms for disease progression. Network modeling may help develop testable hypotheses for neurodegenerative diseases and open up new avenues for therapeutic development.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 06/2013; 13(6):685-93. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of non-selective cation channels that mediate numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes; however, still largely unknown are the underlying molecular mechanisms. With data generated on an unprecedented scale, network-based approaches have been revolutionizing the way in which we understand biology and disease, discover disease genes, and develop therapeutic strategies. These circumstances have created opportunities to encounter TRP channel research to data-intensive science. In this review, we provide an introduction of network-based approaches in biomedical science, describe the current state of TRP channel network biology, and discuss the future direction of TRP channel research. Network perspective will facilitate the discovery of latent roles and underlying mechanisms of TRP channels in biology and disease.Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 05/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor