Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use and Colorectal Polyps in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

Department of Biostatistics and Research Epidemiology, Josephine Ford Cancer Center, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 10.76). 12/2010; 105(12):2646-55. DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2010.349
Source: PubMed


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been documented in animal and human studies to reduce risk for colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, but risk modification for subgroups of the population and effects on hyperplastic polyps have been less studied.
Data on recent use of two frequently ingested NSAIDs, aspirin and ibuprofen, were collected at baseline from participants aged 55-74 years in the 10 centers of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Participants randomized to the intervention arm of the trial received a flexible sigmoidoscopy during a baseline examination. Follow-up of detected polyps was accomplished outside the Trial setting and relevant records were sought and abstracted. Cases (n=4,017) included subjects with a biopsy-proven polyp in the left side of the colon (descending colon, sigmoid, and rectum) detected as a consequence of PLCO screening; controls (n=38,396) were subjects with no left-sided colon polyp.
Regular use of aspirin (≥ 4 times/month) in the past year was inversely associated with hyperplastic polyps (odds ratios (OR)=0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.7-0.9), adenomatous polyps (OR=0.8, 95% CI=0.8-0.9), and advanced adenomas (OR=0.8, 95% CI=0.7-0.9). As frequency of aspirin use increased, the prevalence of polyps decreased significantly for each histological classification (P for trend ≤ 0.0004). Similar patterns were found for adenomas and ibuprofen. Overall protection was consistent in both the descending colon or sigmoid and the rectum, but more evident in males. In males, the OR for heavy use of combined aspirin and ibuprofen (≥ 2 times/day) was 0.6 (95% CI=0.5-0.8), as opposed to 0.9 (95% CI=0.8-1.1) in females. The protective effects of NSAIDs for females were apparent only among those with body mass index (BMI) <25 (OR=0.8, 95% CI=0.7-1.0 for regular use of NSAIDs; P interaction=0.04). We also found a slightly stronger protection of NSAIDs in the 70-74 years age group compared with those aged 55-69 years.
This study of a large general risk population supports previous work that recent use of aspirin and ibuprofen is associated with a decreased risk of colorectal adenomas and demonstrates that this protective effect may be stronger in certain population subgroups and is also evident for aspirin and hyperplastic polyps.

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    • "Chronic inflammation has been proposed as a risk factor for ovarian cancer 3, 4. Aspirin (acetylsalicylate) is one of the most commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the United States 5, and its use has increased significantly over the last 5 years 6. Although the accumulated evidence shows that aspirin use is associated with a reduced risk of prostate 7, 8, breast 9, colorectal 9, 10 and endometrial cancer 11, the relationship between aspirin and ovarian cancer risk remains controversial. Some investigators have found no association 9, 12-14 while others reported an inverse association between the use of aspirin and ovarian cancer 15-17. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Although aspirin has been associated with a reduction of the risk of cancer when used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, its use to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer is controversial. Ovarian cancer cells usually express high levels of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX)-1. Because aspirin is a rather selective inhibitor of COX-1, the ability of aspirin to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer may be dependent on the level of COX-1 expression in those cells. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in the malignant phenotype of ovarian cancer leading to increased cell proliferation and survival. Here we investigated if aspirin attenuates EGFR-activated ovarian cancer cell growth in a COX-1 dependent manner. Methods: Cell viability assays and Western blot analyses were used to determine the effect of aspirin on EGF-stimulated cell proliferation. Gene silencing and gene expression techniques were employed to knockdown or to express COX-1, respectively. Results: Aspirin inhibited cell viability induced by EGF in a dose dependent manner in COX-1 positive ovarian cancer cells. On the other hand, aspirin had no effect on cell viability in COX-1 negative ovarian cancer cells. In particular, aspirin decreased phosphorylated Akt and Erk activated by EGF. COX-1 silencing in COX-1 positive cells attenuated the inhibitory effect of aspirin on EGF-stimulated cell viability. Furthermore, we developed a COX-1 expressing cell line (SKCOX-1) by stably transfecting COX-1 expression vector into COX-1 negative SKOV-3 cells. SKCOX-1 cells were more responsive to aspirin when compared to cells transfected with empty vector, and decreased EGF-activated Akt and Erk as well as cell viability. Conclusions: Taken together, aspirin inhibits viability of ovarian cancer cells by blocking phosphorylation of Akt and Erk activated by EGF. Thus it may potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of drugs used to treat COX-1 positive ovarian cancer subsets.
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    • "The overexpression of PMPMEase in colorectal cancer, its inhibition by curcumin and its differential susceptibility to the PUFAs and PGs are significant against the backdrop of COX-2 overexpression especially in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, long-term use of NSAIDs is associated with lower cancer risks [78, 79]. Considering this and the numerous reports that COX-2 and PGs are important in the development and progression of cancers [80], it has been opined that COX-2-selective inhibition holds a promising role in cancer chemoprevention [78]. "
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    • "[46]. Several case–control studies have also reported a reduction in CRC risk associated with increasing duration of aspirin use [46] [47] [48] [49]. An analysis of 9232 men from 11 case–control studies reported that aspirin use (about 20 years) reduced the risk of CRC by 41% (RR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.54–0.64) "
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    ABSTRACT: Over 600,000 people worldwide die of colorectal cancer (CRC) annually, highlighting the importance of developing effective prevention strategies. Among proposed chemopreventive interventions, aspirin is perhaps the agent with the strongest body of evidence that supports wider spread use to significantly reduce the population burden of CRC. Several epidemiological studies, four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of colorectal polyp recurrence, and RCTs in patients with hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes, have shown that aspirin reduces incidence of colorectal neoplasia. Recently, in a pooled analysis of five cardiovascular-prevention RCTs linked to cancer outcomes, daily aspirin use at any dose reduced the risk of CRC by 24% and of CRC-associated mortality by 35% after a delay of 8-10 years. In an expanded meta-analysis of 8 cardiovascular-prevention RCTs, daily aspirin use at any dose was associated with a 21% lower risk of all cancer death, including CRC, with benefit only apparent after 5 years. In this review, we will summarize human studies of aspirin in CRC prevention as well as discuss the safety profile and mechanism of aspirin in CRC prevention.
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