A Two-handed Jaw-thrust Technique Is Superior to the One-handed "EC-clamp" Technique for Mask Ventilation in the Apneic Unconscious Person
ABSTRACT Mask ventilation is considered a "basic" skill for airway management. A one-handed "EC-clamp" technique is most often used after induction of anesthesia with a two-handed jaw-thrust technique reserved for difficult cases. Our aim was to directly compare both techniques with the primary outcome of air exchange in the lungs.
Forty-two elective surgical patients were mask-ventilated after induction of anesthesia by using a one-handed "EC-clamp" technique and a two-handed jaw-thrust technique during pressure-control ventilation in randomized, crossover fashion. When unresponsive to a jaw thrust, expired tidal volumes were recorded from the expiratory limb of the anesthesia machine each for five consecutive breaths. Inadequate mask ventilation and dead-space ventilation were defined as an average tidal volume less than 4 ml/kg predicted body weight or less than 150 ml/breath, respectively. Differences in minute ventilation and tidal volume between techniques were assessed with the use of a mixed-effects model.
Patients were (mean ± SD) 56 ± 18 yr old with a body mass index of 30 ± 7.1 kg/m. Minute ventilation was 6.32 ± 3.24 l/min with one hand and 7.95 ± 2.70 l/min with two hands. The tidal volume was 6.80 ± 3.10 ml/kg predicted body weight with one hand and 8.60 ± 2.31 ml/kg predicted body weight with two hands. Improvement with two hands was independent of the order used. Inadequate or dead-space ventilation occurred more frequently during use of the one-handed compared with the two-handed technique (14 vs. 5%; P = 0.013).
A two-handed jaw-thrust mask technique improves upper airway patency as measured by greater tidal volumes during pressure-controlled ventilation than a one-handed "EC-clamp" technique in the unconscious apneic person.
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ABSTRACT: Patients requiring emergency airway management are at great risk of hypoxemic hypoxia because of primary lung pathology, high metabolic demands, anemia, insufficient respiratory drive, and inability to protect their airway against aspiration. Tracheal intubation is often required before the complete information needed to assess the risk of periprocedural hypoxia is acquired, such as an arterial blood gas level, hemoglobin value, or even a chest radiograph. This article reviews preoxygenation and peri-intubation oxygenation techniques to minimize the risk of critical hypoxia and introduces a risk-stratification approach to emergency tracheal intubation. Techniques reviewed include positioning, preoxygenation and denitrogenation, positive end expiratory pressure devices, and passive apneic oxygenation.Annals of emergency medicine 11/2011; 59(3):165-75.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2011.10.002 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest advantages of muscle relaxants for facemask ventilation. However, direct effects of muscle relaxants on mask ventilation remain unclear because these studies did not control mechanical factors influencing ventilation. We tested a hypothesis that muscle relaxants, either rocuronium or succinylcholine, improve mask ventilation. In anesthetized adult persons with normal upper airway anatomy, tidal volumes during facemask ventilation were measured while maintaining the neutral head and mandible positions and the airway pressures of a ventilator before and during muscle paralysis induced by either rocuronium (n=14) or succinylcholine (n=17). Tidal volumes of oral and nasal airway routes were separately measured with a custom-made oronasal portioning full facemask. Behavior of the oral airway was observed by an endoscope in six additional subjects receiving succinylcholine. Total, oral, and nasal tidal volumes did not significantly change at complete muscle paralysis with rocuronium. In contrast, succinylcholine significantly increased total tidal volumes at 60 s after its administration (mean±SD; 4.2±2.1 vs. 5.4±2.6 ml/kg, P=0.02) because of increases of ventilation through both airway routes. Abrupt tidal volume increase occurred more through oral airway route than nasal route. Dilation of the space at the isthmus of the fauces was endoscopically observed during pharyngeal fasciculation in all six subjects. Rocuronium did not deteriorate facemask ventilation, and it was improved after succinylcholine administration in association with airway dilation during pharyngeal fasciculation. This effect continued to a lesser degree after resolution of the fasciculation.Anesthesiology 07/2012; 117(3):487-93. DOI:10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182668670 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background. A tight mask seal is frequently difficult to obtain and maintain during single-rescuer bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation. The ResMed mask (Bella Vista, NSW, Australia) is a continuous-positive-airway-pressure mask (CM) designed for noninvasive ventilation. Objective. In this study, we compared the ventilation performances of a standard mask (SM) and a ResMed CM using a simulation manikin in an out-of-hospital single-rescuer BVM ventilation scenario. Methods. Thirty emergency medical technicians (EMTs) performed two 2-minute attempts to ventilate a simulation manikin using BVM ventilation, alternatively, with the SM or the ResMed CM in a randomized order. Ventilation parameters including tidal volume and peak airway pressure were measured using computer analysis software connected to the simulation manikin. Successful volume delivery was defined as delivery of 440-540 mL of tidal volume in accord with present cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. Results. BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM produced higher mean (± standard deviation) tidal volumes (452 ± 50 mL vs. 394 ± 113 mL, p = 0.014) and had a higher proportion of successful volume deliveries (65.3% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.001) than that using the SM. Peak airway pressure was higher in BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM (p = 0.035). Stomach insufflation did not occur during either method. Twenty-nine of the participants (96.7%) preferred BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM. Conclusions. BVM ventilations using ResMed CM resulted in a significantly higher proportion of successful volume deliveries meeting the currently recommended range of tidal volume. Clinical studies are needed to determine the value of the ResMed CM for BVM ventilation.Prehospital Emergency Care 11/2012; 17(2). DOI:10.3109/10903127.2012.729126 · 1.81 Impact Factor