Comparing the influences of age and disease on distortion in the clock drawing test in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is commonly used for cognitive screening, but there are few studies that compare performance on the CDT among schizophrenic patients of different ages. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of schizophrenia and aging on performance in the CDT.
Schizophrenic patients (N = 244) and a comparison group (N = 875) were recruited as subjects. Freedman's CDT was completed by all subjects, and the influences of disease and aging on performance in the CDT were examined. Multiple comparisons of the CDT scores between patients and the comparison group and within three age subgroups (young: less than 40 years, middle aged: 40-59 years, elderly: more than 60 years) were performed.
There was a significant interaction of diagnosis and age, and the education significantly influenced the total score for all CDT conditions. For almost all age subgroups of patients, individuals with schizophrenia had significantly lower scores on all the CDT conditions than did the comparison group subjects. For patients and the comparison group, the elderly subgroup performed significantly worse than the young and middle-aged subgroups on almost all conditions of the CDT. Qualitative analysis of the clocks drawn revealed that the number of CDT categories in which schizophrenic patients scored significantly lower than the comparison group tended to increase with aging across both groups.
This study suggests that performance on the CDT was impaired not only by disease but also by aging. The study confirms that the CDT is sensitive enough to screen for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.
The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 10/2010; 18(10):859-61. DOI:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181ef78eb · 3.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is an evaluation of cognitive function that can be completed with more cases. However, there are few studies that compare which factor, disease or aging, is a better determinant of performance on the BACS. The present study aimed to investigate the influences of disease and aging on BACS performance in schizophrenic patients using subjects with a wide range of ages. Schizophrenic patients (n = 165) and a comparison group (n = 171) were recruited as subjects. All participants completed the Japanese language version of the BACS (BACS-J), and the influences of disease and aging on performance in the BACS were examined with the use of multiple regression analysis. There was a significant influence of diagnosis and level of education on all six tasks of the BACS and the performance and composite scores. In addition, age was found to influence five tasks and the composite score, the duration of illness influenced four tasks and the composite score, and gender influenced one task and the composite score. The present study suggests that performance on the BACS was impaired not only by disease but also by level of education and aging.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2013; 9:1203-8. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S43280 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: There has been a growing need for a cognitive assessment tool that can be used for older adults with schizophrenia in clinical settings. The clock-drawing test (CDT) is a brief cognitive test that covers a wide range of cognitive function. Although it is widely used to assess patients with dementia, limited data are available on its usefulness in older patients with schizophrenia. Thus, we investigated the psychometric properties of the CDT and their relationship with life functions to examine the test's usefulness for assessing cognitive function in older adults with schizophrenia. Methods: Seventy-three older adults with chronic schizophrenia who had been hospitalized for over 1 year participated in the study. We adopted the executive clock-drawing task for administration and scoring of the CDT, which consists of free-drawn and copy conditions. The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia were administered. Symptom severity and life functions were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Life Skills Profile, respectively. Results: Both free-drawn and copy scores significantly correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination score and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia composite score. These scores also significantly correlated with symptom severity and length of current hospitalization. Stepwise regression analysis showed that only the copy score, together with symptom severity, predicted the Life Skills Profile score. Conclusions: The CDT can assess cognitive function in older adults with schizophrenia. Moreover, CDT performance is associated with life functions independent from other clinical variables. These results suggest that the CDT is a useful cognitive assessment tool for this population.Psychogeriatrics 12/2012; 12(4):242-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1479-8301.2012.00425.x · 1.22 Impact Factor