Specialized compartments of cardiac nuclei exhibit distinct proteomic anatomy.
ABSTRACT As host to the genome, the nucleus plays a critical role as modulator of cellular phenotype. To understand the totality of proteins that regulate this organelle, we used proteomics to characterize the components of the cardiac nucleus. Following purification, cardiac nuclei were fractionated into biologically relevant fractions including acid-soluble proteins, chromatin-bound molecules and nucleoplasmic proteins. These distinct subproteomes were characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. We report a cardiac nuclear proteome of 1048 proteins--only 146 of which are shared between the distinct subcompartments of this organelle. Analysis of genomic loci encoding these molecules gives insights into local hotspots for nuclear protein regulation. High mass accuracy and complementary analytical techniques allowed the discrimination of distinct protein isoforms, including 54 total histone variants, 17 of which were distinguished by unique peptide sequences and four of which have never been detected at the protein level. These studies are the first unbiased analysis of cardiac nuclear subcompartments and provide a foundation for exploration of this organelle's proteomes during disease.
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ABSTRACT: Organeller proteomics is an emerging technology that is critical in determining the cellular signal transduction pathways. Nucleus, the regulatory hub of the eukaryotic cell is a dynamic system and a repository of various macromolecules that serve as modulators of such signaling that dictate cell fate decisions. Nuclear proteins (NPs) are predicted to comprise about 10-20% of the total cellular proteins, suggesting the involvement of the nucleus in a number of diverse functions. Indeed, NPs constitute a highly organized but complex network that plays diverse roles during development and physiological processes. In plants, relatively little is known about the nature of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in coordinating NP synthesis, their action and function. Proteomic study hold promise to understand the molecular basis of nuclear function using an unbiased comparative and differential approach. We identified a few hundred proteins that include classical and non-canonical nuclear components presumably associated with variety of cellular functions impinging on the complexity of nuclear proteome. Here, we review the nuclear proteome based on our own findings, available literature, and databases focusing on detailed comparative analysis of NPs and their functions in order to understand how plant nucleus works. The review also shed light on the current status of plant nuclear proteome and discusses the future prospect.Frontiers in Plant Science 04/2013; 4:100. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2013.00100 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heart failure remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed nations. Our current understanding of molecular pathways involved in heart failure reveals little of the multiscale biological systems at work. Here we consider recent advances in understanding the integrative multiscale biology, or systems biology, of heart failure and present a framework for future work in the area. Multiplexed assays of gene expression and the complex dynamics of protein-protein interactions in heart failure have illuminated key pathways important to myocardial adaptation. Modeling of complex systems has advanced to incorporate these dynamic data sources into networks that capture fundamental interactions on different biological scales. The complex syndrome of heart failure, like other complex disease syndromes, can be viewed as an emergent property of these multiscale systems. A comprehensive understanding of adaptive mechanisms in heart failure requires integration of multiple data sources on several biological scales. A combination of holistic systems biology approaches and traditional reductionist experimentation will be required for a nuanced understanding of this multifaceted disease process.Current opinion in cardiology 07/2011; 26(4):314-21. DOI:10.1097/HCO.0b013e328346597d · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myocardial ischemic injury and cardioprotection are characterized by a cascade of molecular changes, which includes gene expression, protein expression, protein localization, interactions, and posttranslational modifications (PTMs). A systems biology approach allows the study of these genes and proteins on a large scale; the omics technologies have led to new discoveries that further enhance our understanding of these molecular events. The complexity of the prosurvival signaling networks in cardiac cells is increasingly recognized; they afford beneficial effects on the integrity and functionality of a common effector, the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial proteome undergoes dynamic modifications in the course of ischemic injury; depending on the degree of injury, a variety of functional clusters are being affected including the changes in their protein properties (eg, PTMs), which consequently impact their function. The mitochondrial proteome appears to have inherent molecular machinery that initiates a versatile prosurvival mode, resisting environmental challenges. The molecular features in these mitochondrial pathways enabling adaptations involve distinct phosphorylation sites, S-nitrosylation cysteine residues, and other important amino acid domains subjected to PTMs. They become critical players in the determination of cell death and survival. Cardioprotective protein kinases, such as protein kinase C∈, can activate these PTMs, and provide a unique therapeutic platform for the use of small peptide regulators. Combining genomics and metabolomics discovery with that of proteomics information allows biological insights into cardioprotection at an integrated systems level. The current review discusses the systems biology concepts of myocardial ischemic injury and cardioprotection, as well as outlines the interrelationships of proteomics, genomics, and metabolomics in the quest to comprehend the prosurvival cell-signaling networks.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 09/2011; 16(3-4):285-9. DOI:10.1177/1074248411415855 · 3.07 Impact Factor