Anatomical and immunohistochemical considerations on the microinnervation of trachea in humans.
ABSTRACT The anatomy of the tracheal microinnervation is understudied in humans; the purpose of our study was to fill this gap by working on human adult tracheas, to compare the results with those obtained from animal studies, and to checking whether or not these studies are suitable to be translated from comparative to the human anatomy. The study was designed as a qualitative one. The present work was performed on human adult tracheas dissected out in 15 human adult cadavers. Microdissections were performed in eight tracheas and revealed the outer peritracheal plexus, segmentally supplied and distributed to trachea and esophagus, with longitudinal intersegmentary anastomoses but also with bilateral interrecurrential anastomoses previously undescribed in anatomy. Seven different tracheas were transversally cut and paraffin embedded. Histological stains (HE, toluidine blue, luxol fast blue, Giemsa on tissues and trichrome Gieson) and immunohistochemistry using primary antibodies for nNOS, neurofilament, SMA and the cocktail of citokeratines CK AE1-AE3+8/18 were done. According to the histological individual variation, the neural layers of the posterior wall of the human trachea could be considered as it follows: (a) an outer neural layer, ganglionated, associated with the connective covering layers, adventitia and the posterior fibroelastic membrane (external elastic lamina); (b) a submucosal ganglionated neural layer, mainly with juxtaglandular microganglia that may expand, as glands do, through the outer covering layers; (c) intrinsic nerves of the transverse trachealis muscle; (d) the neural layer intrinsic to the longitudinal elastic band (internal elastic lamina) and supplied from the inner submucosa; (e) the neural plexus of the lamina propria, with scarcely distributed neurons. We also bring here the first evidences for the in vivo nNOS phenotype of mast cells that were identified, but not exclusively, within the trachealis muscle.
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ABSTRACT: The cranial parasympathetic ganglia have been reported to paradoxically contain the sympathetic nerve marker, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), in addition to neurons expressing parasympathetic markers such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). However, the distribution of these molecules in the cranial ganglia of human fetuses has not yet been examined. Using paraffin sections from 10 mid-term human fetuses (12-15 weeks), we performed immunohistochemistry for TH, VIP, and nNOS in the parasympathetic ciliary, pterygopalatine, otic, and submandibular ganglia, and for comparison, the sensory inferior vagal ganglion. The ciliary and submandibular ganglia contained abundant TH-positive neurons. In the former, TH-positive neurons were much more numerous than nNOS-positive neurons, whereas in the latter, nNOS immunoreactivity was extremely strong. No or a few cells in the pterygopalatine, otic, and inferior vagal ganglia expressed TH. Ciliary TH neurons appeared to compensate for classically described sympathetic fibers arising from the superior cervical ganglion, whereas in the submandibular ganglion, nNOS-positive neurons as well as TH neurons might innervate the lingual artery in addition to the salivary glands. Significant individual variations in the density of all these markers suggested differences in sensitivity to medicine affecting autonomic nerve function. Consequently, in the human cranial autonomic ganglia, it appears that there is no simple dichotomy between sympathetic and parasympathetic function.The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 11/2011; 295(1):141-9. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cholinergic and nitrergic phenotypes in human fetal ganglia (inferior) of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves were overlooked in basic research. Lack of a positive neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) phenotype in the inferior vagal fetal ganglion was recently suggested to be an individually variable phenotype. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was not evaluated previously in ontogenesis. We aimed to evaluate these phenotypes in human midterm fetuses. Samples from five specimens with gestational ages varying from 4 to 6 months were used. Immunohistochemistry for nNOS, ChAT, neurofilaments, and S100 protein was performed. Neuronal somata were positively stained for nNOS, ChAT and neurofilaments in the inferior glossopharyngeal and vagal ganglia. S100 protein distinctively labelled the satellite glial cells ensheating the respective neurons. In human midterm fetuses vagal and glossopharyngeal inferior ganglia are nitrergic and cholinergic. To evaluate a functional role of these phenotypes in ontogenesis, the specific anatomic circuits should be further checked. Differences in immune labelling should be evaluated by use of similar antibodies from different manufacturers.Journal of medicine and life 12/2012; 5(4):482-5.
Article: The Longwood Medical Area Network.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Longwood Medical Area Network (LMAnet) is a high speed fiber optic network that connects several patient care, research, and educational organizations in Boston's Longwood Medical Area. This paper describes the architecture of the network, current and potential future uses of the network, network costs and administration, and management issues associated with the use of LMAnet.Journal of Medical Systems 07/1991; 15(3):229-35. · 1.78 Impact Factor