Varying regional topology within knee articular chondrocytes under simulated in vivo conditions.
ABSTRACT Topographical cartilage variation across the knee joint has been previously reported, but there is only limited information on such gene expression profiles. Articular chondrocytes from eight different topographical regions of bovine knee joints were seeded within three-dimensional scaffolds and further cultured under static conditions (unloaded control group) or subjected to an artificial joint environment within a bioreactor (loaded group). Constructs were analyzed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG), DNA, and expression of Collagen-1,-2,-10, Aggrecan, COMP, Sox9, PRG-4, PTHrp, and MMP-1,-3,-13 mRNA after 2 weeks of in vitro culture. Exclusively among loaded constructs the overall GAG production was significantly different between regions. Patella chondrocytes had overall highest, and cells from the femoral notch had overall lowest GAG/DNA under loaded conditions. Gene expression was significantly different between regions for all targets except for Sox9, PRG-4, and PTHrp among controls and with the exception of Aggrecan, Sox9, and PTHrp among loaded samples. Under mechanical stimulation Collagen-1,-2 and Aggrecan was highest at the patello-femoral joint, whereas it was lowest at typical cartilage biopsy regions. There is a clear topographical variation among distinct regions across the knee joint for gene and matrix expression profiles under static and foremost under dynamic conditions.
SourceAvailable from: Florian M Laux[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage, once damaged, has very low regenerative potential. Various experimental approaches have been conducted to enhance chondrogenesis and cartilage maturation. Among those, non-invasive electromagnetic fields have shown their beneficial influence for cartilage regeneration and are widely used for the treatment of non-unions, fractures, avascular necrosis and osteoarthritis. One very well accepted way to promote cartilage maturation is physical stimulation through bioreactors. The aim of this study was the investigation of combined mechanical and electromagnetic stress affecting cartilage cells in vitro. Primary articular chondrocytes from bovine fetlock joints were seeded into three-dimensional (3-D) polyurethane scaffolds and distributed into seven stimulated experimental groups. They either underwent mechanical or electromagnetic stimulation (sinusoidal electromagnetic field of 1 mT, 2 mT, or 3 mT; 60 Hz) or both within a joint-specific bioreactor and a coil system. The scaffold-cell constructs were analyzed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and DNA content, histology, and gene expression of collagen-1, collagen-2, aggrecan, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), Sox9, proteoglycan-4 (PRG-4), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3 and -13). There were statistically significant differences in GAG/DNA content between the stimulated versus the control group with highest levels in the combined stimulation group. Gene expression was significantly higher for combined stimulation groups versus static control for collagen 2/collagen 1 ratio and lower for MMP-13. Amongst other genes, a more chondrogenic phenotype was noticed in expression patterns for the stimulated groups. To conclude, there is an effect of electromagnetic and mechanical stimulation on chondrocytes seeded in a 3-D scaffold, resulting in improved extracellular matrix production. Bioelectromagnetics. 9999:1-13. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Bioelectromagnetics 02/2014; 35(2). DOI:10.1002/bem.21822 · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There are several reports on long-term clinical outcomes after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for knee cartilage defect treatment. Few published articles have evaluated defect quality using quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques.The American Journal of Sports Medicine 06/2014; 42(8). DOI:10.1177/0363546514536682 · 4.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose a culture-free approach to osteochondral repair with minced autologous cartilage fragments loaded onto a scaffold composed of a hyaluronic acid (HA)-derived membrane, platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) and fibrin glue. The aim of the study was to demonstrate in vitro the outgrowth of chondrocytes from cartilage fragments onto this scaffold and, in vivo, the formation of functional repair tissue in goat osteochondral defects. Two sections were considered: 1) in vitro: minced articular cartilage from goat stifle joints was loaded onto scaffolds, cultured for 1 or 2 months, and then evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically; 2) in vivo: 2 unilateral critically-sized trochlear osteochondral defects were created in 15 adult goats; defects were treated with cartilage fragments embedded in the scaffold (Group 1), with the scaffold alone (Group 2), or untreated (Group 3). Repair processes were evaluated morphologically, histologically, immunohistochemically and biomechanically at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. We found that in vitro, chondrocytes from cartilage fragments migrated to the scaffold and, at 2 months, matrix positive for collagen type II was observed in the constructs. In vivo, morphological and histological assessment demonstrated that cartilage fragment-loaded scaffolds led to the formation of functional hyaline-like repair tissue. Repair in Group 1 was superior to that of control groups, both histologically and mechanically. Autologous cartilage fragments loaded onto an HA/PRFM/fibrin glue scaffold provided a viable cell source and allowed for an improvement of the repair process of osteochondral defects in a goat model, representing an effective alternative for one-stage repair of osteochondral lesions.European cells & materials 01/2013; 26:15-32. · 4.89 Impact Factor