The Cost-Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccination in Malawi
ABSTRACT Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline), a newly licensed rotavirus vaccine requiring 2 doses, may have the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives in Africa. Nations such as Malawi, where Rotarix is currently under phase III investigation, may nevertheless face difficult economic choices in considering vaccine adoption.
The cost-effectiveness of implementing a Rotarix vaccine program in Malawi was estimated using published estimates of rotavirus burden, vaccine efficacy, and health care utilization and costs.
With 49.5% vaccine efficacy, a Rotarix program could avert 2582 deaths annually. With GAVI Alliance cofinancing, adoption of Rotarix would be associated with a cost of $5.07 per disability-adjusted life-year averted. With market pricing, Rotarix would be associated with a base case cost of $74.73 per disability-adjusted life-year averted. Key variables influencing results were vaccine efficacy, under-2 rotavirus mortality, and program cost of administering each dose.
Adopting Rotarix would likely be highly cost-effective for Malawi, particularly with GAVI support. This finding holds true across uncertainty ranges for key variables, including efficacy, for which data are becoming available.
- SourceAvailable from: Lizell B Madsen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Worldwide, rotavirus infections cause approximately 453 000 child deaths annually. Two licensed vaccines could be life- and cost-saving in low-income countries where the disease burden is highest. The aim of our study was to estimate the total cost of implementing the rotavirus vaccine in the national immunisation programme of a low-income country. Furthermore, the aim was to examine the relative contribution of different components to the total cost. Following the World Health Organization guidelines, we estimated the resource use and costs associated with rotavirus vaccine implementation, using Malawi as a case. The cost analysis was undertaken from a governmental perspective. All costs were calculated for a 5-years period (2012-2016) and discounted at 5%. The value of key input parameters was varied in a sensitivity analysis. The total cost of rotavirus vaccine implementation in Malawi amounted to US$ 18.5 million over a 5-years period. This translated into US$ 5.8 per child in the birth cohort. With GAVI Alliance financial support, the total cost was reduced to US$ 1.4 per child in the birth cohort. Approximately 83% of the total cost was attributed to vaccine purchase, while 17% was attributed to system costs, with personnel, transportation and cold chain as the main cost components. The total cost of rotavirus vaccine implementation in Malawi is high compared with the governmental health budget of US$ 26 per capita per year. This highlights the need for new financing opportunities for low-income countries to facilitate vaccine implementation and ensure sustainable financing.Tropical Medicine & International Health 12/2013; 19(2). DOI:10.1111/tmi.12233 · 2.30 Impact Factor
Article: Rotavirus Vaccine RIX4414 (Rotarix™)[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article provides an overview of the clinical profile of rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 (Rotarix™) in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in developing countries, followed by a comprehensive review of pharmacoeconomic analyses with the vaccine in low- and middle-income countries. RVGE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age in developing countries. The protective efficacy of a two-dose oral series of rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 has been demonstrated in several well designed clinical trials conducted in developing countries, and the ‘real-world’ effectiveness of the vaccine has also been shown in naturalistic and case-control trials after the introduction of universal vaccination programmes with RIX4414 in Latin American countries. The WHO recommends universal rotavirus vaccination programmes for all countries. Numerous modelled cost-effectiveness analyses have been conducted with rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 across a wide range of low- and middle-income countries. Although data sources and assumptions varied across studies, results of the analyses consistently showed that the introduction of the vaccine as part of a national vaccination programme would be very (or highly) cost effective compared with no rotavirus vaccination programme, according to widely used costeffectiveness thresholds for developing countries. Vaccine price was not known at the time the analyses were conducted and had to be estimated. In sensitivity analyses, rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 generally remained cost effective at the highest of a range of possible vaccine prices considered. Despite these favourable results, decisions regarding the implementation of universal vaccination programmes with RIX4414 may also be contingent on budgetary and other factors, underscoring the importance of subsidized vaccination programmes for poor countries through the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization).PharmacoEconomics 01/2011; 29(11). DOI:10.2165/11207210-000000000-00000 · 3.34 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality for children under 5 years of age, and rotavirus is identified as the main cause of severe diarrhea worldwide. Since 2006, two rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and Rotateq, have been available in the market. These vaccines have proved to have high efficacy in developed countries. Clinical trials are being undertaken in Asia and Africa, and early clinical results found that the vaccine significantly reduces severe diarrhea episodes due to rotavirus (48.3% for Asia and 30.2% for Africa). The WHO recommended that rotavirus immunization be included in all national immunization programs. Based on WHO's recommendations, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization decided to provide financial support for rotavirus immunization in the developing world. In this article, we attempted to ascertain the cost-effectiveness of universal rotavirus immunization in developing countries. After an extensive literature search, we identified and evaluated 15 cost-effectiveness studies conducted in the developing world. The results from these studies showed that rotavirus immunization is a cost-effective strategy and one of the best interventions to prevent rotavirus-related diarrheal disease. However, rotavirus vaccines are expensive and the vaccine price appears to be the most challenging and crucial factor for decision-makers regarding whether to introduce this vaccine into developing countries' immunization schedules. All the studies concluded that rotavirus immunization is cost effective but may not be affordable for the developing world at present. Developing countries will definitely rely on financial support from international organizations to introduce rotavirus vaccination. It is recommended that more research on cost-effective rotavirus immunization with updated data be conducted and new rotavirus vaccine candidates be developed at a cheaper price to speed up the introduction of rotavirus immunization to the developing world.Expert Review of Vaccines 07/2011; 10(7):1037-51. DOI:10.1586/erv.11.65 · 4.22 Impact Factor