Article

Consumo de cánnabis de los adolescentes y esquizofrenia: evidencias epidemiológicas y experimentales

Adicciones: Revista de socidrogalcohol, ISSN 0214-4840, Vol. 22, Nº. 3, 2010, pags. 185-190 01/2010;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT La marihuana es la droga ilegal más utilizada entre los adolescentes. La mayoría de los usuarios comienzan además a experimentar con ella durante este período. La adolescencia es una etapa crítica, que incluye no sólo la maduración reproductiva, sino también la cognitiva, emocional y social de maduración. El cerebro del adolescente está aún en transición, difiriendo tanto anatómica como neuroquimicamente del adulto. El sistema endocannabinoide es un determinante importante para la maduración cerebral, por lo que su importante estimulación a través del delta-9-tetrahidrocannabinol, que actúa a través del sistema endocannabinoide, podría conducir a cambios neurobiológicos sutiles pero duraderos, que pueden afectar las funciones cerebrales y el comportamiento incluso cuando ya es adulto. Resumimos las más recientes investigaciones acerca de la exposición de los adolescentes a los cannabinoides y el riesgo de trastornos psicóticos como la esquizofrenia, como se desprende de los estudios tanto humanos como animales. La evidencia epidemiológica sugiere que el consumo de cannabis es un factor de riesgo para la esquizofrenia, y contibuye a la exacerbación de los síntomas y al empeoramiento del pronóstico en individuos con predisposición. Las características del cerebro adolescente, probablemente lo hace más vulnerable a los efectos del cannabis produciendo síntomas similares a los psicóticos y posiblemente causando la esquizofrenia.

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