A common variant in the patatin-like phospholipase 3 gene (PNPLA3) is associated with fatty liver disease in obese children and adolescents.
ABSTRACT The genetic factors associated with susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in pediatric obesity remain largely unknown. Recently, a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs738409), in the patatin-like phospholipase 3 gene (PNPLA3) has been associated with hepatic steatosis in adults. In a multiethnic group of 85 obese youths, we genotyped the PNLPA3 single-nucleotide polymorphism, measured hepatic fat content by magnetic resonance imaging and insulin sensitivity by the insulin clamp. Because PNPLA3 might affect adipogenesis/lipogenesis, we explored the putative association with the distribution of adipose cell size and the expression of some adipogenic/lipogenic genes in a subset of subjects who underwent a subcutaneous fat biopsy. Steatosis was present in 41% of Caucasians, 23% of African Americans, and 66% of Hispanics. The frequency of PNPLA3(rs738409) G allele was 0.324 in Caucasians, 0.183 in African Americans, and 0.483 in Hispanics. The prevalence of the G allele was higher in subjects showing hepatic steatosis. Surprisingly, subjects carrying the G allele showed comparable hepatic glucose production rates, peripheral glucose disposal rate, and glycerol turnover as the CC homozygotes. Carriers of the G allele showed smaller adipocytes than those with CC genotype (P = 0.005). Although the expression of PNPLA3, PNPLA2, PPARγ2(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2), SREBP1c(sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c), and ACACA(acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase) was not different between genotypes, carriers of the G allele showed lower leptin (LEP)(P = 0.03) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: A common variant of the PNPLA3 gene confers susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in obese youths without increasing the level of hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance. The rs738409 PNPLA3 G allele is associated with morphological changes in adipocyte cell size.
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ABSTRACT: Fatty liver is increasingly common in obese adolescents. We determined its association with glucose dysregulation in 118 (37M/81F) obese adolescents of similar age and percent total fat. Fast-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and simple MRI were used to quantify hepatic fat content and abdominal fat distribution. All subjects had a standard oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the Matsuda Index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Baseline total and high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin and interleukin (IL)-6 levels were measured. The cohort was stratified according to tertiles of hepatic fat content. Whereas age and %fat were comparable across tertiles, ethnicity differed in that fewer Blacks and more Whites and Hispanics were in the moderate and high category of hepatic fat fraction (HFF). Visceral and the visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio increased and insulin sensitivity decreased across tertiles. Two-hour plasma glucose rose with increasing hepatic steatosis (P < 0.008). 73.7% of the subjects in the high HFF had the metabolic syndrome compared to 19.5% and 30.6%, respectively, in the low and moderate categories. Both total and HMW-adiponectin decreased, and IL-6 increased with increasing hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSION: In obese adolescents, independent of total fat, increasing severity of fatty liver is associated with glucose dysregulation, metabolic syndrome, and with a proinflammatory milieu.Hepatology 01/2009; 49(6):1896-903. · 11.66 Impact Factor
Article: Identification, cloning, expression, and purification of three novel human calcium-independent phospholipase A2 family members possessing triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol transacylase activities.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genetic knockout of hormone-sensitive lipase in mice has implicated the presence of other intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases mediating TAG hydrolysis in adipocytes. Despite intense interest in these TAG lipases, their molecular identities thus far are largely unknown. Sequence data base searches for proteins containing calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) dual signature nucleotide ((G/A)XGXXG) and lipase (GXSXG) consensus sequence motifs identified a novel subfamily of three putative iPLA2/lipase family members designated iPLA2epsilon, iPLA2zeta, and iPLA2eta (previously named adiponutrin, TTS-2.2, and GS2, respectively) of previously unknown catalytic function. Herein we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, and affinity purification of the three human isoforms of this iPLA2 subfamily in Sf9 cells, and we demonstrate that each possesses abundant TAG lipase activity. Moreover, iPLA2epsilon, iPLA2zeta, and iPLA2eta also possess acylglycerol transacylase activity utilizing mono-olein as an acyl donor which, in the presence of mono-olein or diolein acceptors, results in the synthesis of diolein and triolein, respectively. (E)-6-(Bromomethylene)-3-(1-naphthalenyl)-2H-tetrahydropyran-2-one, a mechanism-based suicide substrate inhibitor of all known iPLA2s, inhibits the triglyceride lipase activity of each of the three isoforms similarly (IC50=0.1-0.5 microm). Quantitative PCR revealed dramatically increased expression of iPLA2epsilon and iPLA2zeta transcripts during the hormone-induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes and identified the presence of all three iPLA2 isoforms in human SW872 liposarcoma cells. Collectively, these results identify three novel TAG lipases/acylglycerol transacylases that likely participate in TAG hydrolysis and the acyl-CoA independent transacylation of acylglycerols, thereby facilitating energy mobilization and storage in adipocytes.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2004; 279(47):48968-75. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Dissociation of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice overexpressing DGAT in the liver.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatic steatosis, the accumulation of lipids in the liver, is widely believed to result in insulin resistance. To test the causal relationship between hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, we generated mice that overexpress acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), which catalyzes the final step of triacylglycerol (TG) biosynthesis, in the liver (Liv-DGAT2 mice). Liv-DGAT2 mice developed hepatic steatosis, with increased amounts of TG, diacylglycerol, ceramides, and unsaturated long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs in the liver. However, they had no abnormalities in plasma glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin tolerance, rates of glucose infusion and hepatic glucose production during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies, or activities of insulin-stimulated signaling proteins in the liver. DGAT1 overexpression in the liver also failed to induce glucose or insulin intolerance. Our results indicate that DGAT-mediated lipid accumulation in the liver is insufficient to cause insulin resistance and show that hepatic steatosis can occur independently of insulin resistance.Cell Metabolism 08/2007; 6(1):69-78. · 13.67 Impact Factor