Stromal macrophage expressing CD204 is associated with tumor aggressiveness in lung adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT Tumor tissue is composed of variable numbers of cancer cells and stromal cells, and tumor-associated macrophages are recruited into cancer-induced stroma and produce a specific microenvironment. Alternatively, activated macrophages (M2 phenotype) are known to be related to tumor progression and outcome, and CD204 has been reported to be expressed in M2 macrophages in some tumors.
To investigate whether CD204-positive macrophages reflect tumor aggressiveness in adenocarcinoma of the lung, we investigated the relationships between the numbers of CD204-positive stromal macrophages and both clinicopathological features and outcome in 170 consecutive resected cases. We also examined the relationships between the numbers of CD204-positive macrophages and the expression levels of cytokines involved in the migration and differentiation of M2 macrophages.
The numbers of CD204-positive macrophages were significantly correlated with several prognostic factors. The log-rank test showed a significant association between the numbers of CD204-positive macrophages and a poor outcome (p = 0.0073), whereas the numbers of macrophages expressing CD68, a pan-macrophage/monocyte marker, were of marginal prognostic significance (p = 0.0789). We evaluated associations between the levels of expression of the cytokines IL-6, IL-10, IL-12a, IL-12b, M-colony-stimulating factor, IFN-gamma-., and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in cancer tissue and the numbers of CD204-positive macrophages. The expression levels of IL-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which are involved in differentiation, accumulation, and migration of M2 macrophages, were significantly correlated with the numbers of CD204-positive macrophages (p = 0.031 and p = 0.031, respectively).
These findings demonstrated that CD204-positive macrophages clearly reflect the tumor-promoting phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages in lung adenocarcinoma.
- SourceAvailable from: Satoshi Marumo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that an elevated peripheral monocyte count at presentation predicts a poor prognosis in various types of malignancy, including malignant lymphoma. In lung adenocarcinoma, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. However, it is unknown if an elevated peripheral monocyte count is associated with a poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. This study assessed the prognostic impact of the preoperative peripheral monocyte count in lung adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 302 consecutive patients with lung adenocarcinoma who received curative resection at Kitano Hospital. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the peripheral monocyte count was used to determine the cut-off value. The relations between peripheral monocyte counts and clinicopathological factors were assessed. We also evaluated the impacts of possible prognostic factors including the preoperative peripheral monocyte count on survival, using the two-tailed log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for CD68 was performed to evaluate the monocytes in primary tumors. Results A peripheral monocyte count of 430 mm−3 was the optimal cut-off value for prognosis. An elevated peripheral monocyte count was significantly associated with sex, performance status, smoking history, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The two-tailed log-rank test demonstrated that patients with an elevated peripheral monocyte count experienced a poorer recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0063, P < 0.0001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis an elevated peripheral monocyte count was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for the RFS and OS (HR: 1.765; 95% CI: 1.071 − 2.910; P = 0.0258, HR: 4.339; 95% CI: 2.032 − 9.263; P = 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, numbers of the monocytes in primary tumors significantly correlated with peripheral monocyte counts (r = 0.627, P < 0.0001). Conclusion The preoperative peripheral monocyte count is an important prognostic factor for patients with lung adenocarcinoma after curative resection.Lung Cancer 09/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that generation of adenosine from ATP, which is mediated by the CD39/CD73 enzyme pair, predetermines immunosuppressive and proangiogenic properties of myeloid cells. We have previously shown that the deletion of the TGF-β type II receptor gene (Tgfbr2) expression in myeloid cells is associated with decreased tumor growth, suggesting protumorigenic effect of TGF-β signaling. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TGF-β drives differentiation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells into protumorigenic terminally differentiated myeloid mononuclear cells (TDMMCs) characterized by high levels of cell-surface CD39/CD73 expression. We found that TDMMCs represent a major cell subpopulation expressing high levels of both CD39 and CD73 in the tumor microenvironment. In tumors isolated from mice with spontaneous tumor formation of mammary gland and conditional deletion of the type II TGF-β receptor in mammary epithelium, an increased level of TGF-β protein was associated with further increase in number of CD39(+)CD73(+) TDMMCs compared with MMTV-PyMT/TGFβRII(WT) control tumors with intact TGF-β signaling. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrated that the TGF-β signaling mediates maturation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells into TDMMCs with high levels of cell surface CD39/CD73 expression and adenosine-generating capacity. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in myeloid cells resulted in decreased accumulation of TDMMCs, expressing CD39 and CD73, and was accompanied by increased infiltration of T lymphocytes, reduced density of blood vessels, and diminished progression of both Lewis lung carcinoma and spontaneous mammary carcinomas. We propose that TGF-β signaling can directly induce the generation of CD39(+)CD73(+) TDMMCs, thus contributing to the immunosuppressive, proangiogenic, and tumor-promoting effects of this pleiotropic effector in the tumor microenvironment.The Journal of Immunology 08/2014; · 5.36 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous study has revealed that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) correlate with response to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we further determined that M2-TAMs, but not M1-TAMs, are related to the treatment response to EGFR-TKIs in advanced NSCLC and may be an independent predictor of survival. Eighty-eight advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with a second-line EGFR-TKI were involved in this study. M2-TAMs counts but not M1-TAMs were significantly higher in patients with progressive disease than in those without (P < 0.001). A trend also remained in patients with known EGFR status (n = 61) and those with mutant EGFR (n = 49). High M2-TAMs counts were shown to be significantly related to poor progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in all patients, or subsets of patients with known EGFR status or patients with EGFR mutation (all P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox analyses showed that high M2-TAMs counts and EGFR mutations were both independent factors associated with PFS and OS (P < 0.05). Overall, we revealed that M2- but not M1-TAMs are related to the response of EGFR-TKIs treatment irrespective of EGFR mutation and can independently predict survival in advanced lung adenocarcinoma treated with a second-line EGFR-TKI.Medical Oncology 08/2014; 31(8):127. · 2.06 Impact Factor