Stromal Macrophage Expressing CD204 is Associated with Tumor Aggressiveness in Lung Adenocarcinoma
ABSTRACT Tumor tissue is composed of variable numbers of cancer cells and stromal cells, and tumor-associated macrophages are recruited into cancer-induced stroma and produce a specific microenvironment. Alternatively, activated macrophages (M2 phenotype) are known to be related to tumor progression and outcome, and CD204 has been reported to be expressed in M2 macrophages in some tumors.
To investigate whether CD204-positive macrophages reflect tumor aggressiveness in adenocarcinoma of the lung, we investigated the relationships between the numbers of CD204-positive stromal macrophages and both clinicopathological features and outcome in 170 consecutive resected cases. We also examined the relationships between the numbers of CD204-positive macrophages and the expression levels of cytokines involved in the migration and differentiation of M2 macrophages.
The numbers of CD204-positive macrophages were significantly correlated with several prognostic factors. The log-rank test showed a significant association between the numbers of CD204-positive macrophages and a poor outcome (p = 0.0073), whereas the numbers of macrophages expressing CD68, a pan-macrophage/monocyte marker, were of marginal prognostic significance (p = 0.0789). We evaluated associations between the levels of expression of the cytokines IL-6, IL-10, IL-12a, IL-12b, M-colony-stimulating factor, IFN-gamma-., and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in cancer tissue and the numbers of CD204-positive macrophages. The expression levels of IL-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which are involved in differentiation, accumulation, and migration of M2 macrophages, were significantly correlated with the numbers of CD204-positive macrophages (p = 0.031 and p = 0.031, respectively).
These findings demonstrated that CD204-positive macrophages clearly reflect the tumor-promoting phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages in lung adenocarcinoma.
- SourceAvailable from: Satoshi Marumo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that an elevated peripheral monocyte count at presentation predicts a poor prognosis in various types of malignancy, including malignant lymphoma. In lung adenocarcinoma, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) were reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. However, it is unknown if an elevated peripheral monocyte count is associated with a poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. This study assessed the prognostic impact of the preoperative peripheral monocyte count in lung adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 302 consecutive patients with lung adenocarcinoma who received curative resection at Kitano Hospital. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the peripheral monocyte count was used to determine the cut-off value. The relations between peripheral monocyte counts and clinicopathological factors were assessed. We also evaluated the impacts of possible prognostic factors including the preoperative peripheral monocyte count on survival, using the two-tailed log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for CD68 was performed to evaluate the monocytes in primary tumors. Results A peripheral monocyte count of 430 mm−3 was the optimal cut-off value for prognosis. An elevated peripheral monocyte count was significantly associated with sex, performance status, smoking history, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The two-tailed log-rank test demonstrated that patients with an elevated peripheral monocyte count experienced a poorer recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0063, P < 0.0001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis an elevated peripheral monocyte count was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for the RFS and OS (HR: 1.765; 95% CI: 1.071 − 2.910; P = 0.0258, HR: 4.339; 95% CI: 2.032 − 9.263; P = 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, numbers of the monocytes in primary tumors significantly correlated with peripheral monocyte counts (r = 0.627, P < 0.0001). Conclusion The preoperative peripheral monocyte count is an important prognostic factor for patients with lung adenocarcinoma after curative resection.Lung Cancer 09/2014; 85(3). DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.06.015 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can be abundantly present in numerous cancer types. Under influence of various stimuli in the tumor microenvironment TAMs develop into a tumor-inhibitory (M1) or tumor-promoting (M2) phenotype. Recently, the role of TAMs in tumor biology and their prognostic value in cancer has become a major topic of interest. In this review we will discuss the importance of TAMs in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of lung cancer and mesothelioma patients. In addition, the potential of TAMs as therapeutic targets will be discussed.Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 06/2013; 80(3):256–262. DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2013.02.017 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Concerns over the potential for multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to induce lung carcinogenesis have emerged. This study sought to (1) identify gene expression signatures in the mouse lungs following pharyngeal aspiration of well-dispersed MWCNT and (2) determine if these genes were associated with human lung cancer risk and progression. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles were analyzed in mouse lungs (n = 160) exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μg of MWCNT by pharyngeal aspiration at 1, 7, 28, and 56 d postexposure. By using pairwise statistical analysis of microarray (SAM) and linear modeling, 24 genes were selected, which have significant changes in at least two time points, have a more than 1.5-fold change at all doses, and are significant in the linear model for the dose or the interaction of time and dose. Additionally, a 38-gene set was identified as related to cancer from 330 genes differentially expressed at d 56 postexposure in functional pathway analysis. Using the expression profiles of the cancer-related gene set in 8 mice at d 56 postexposure to 10 μg of MWCNT, a nearest centroid classification accurately predicts human lung cancer survival with a significant hazard ratio in training set (n = 256) and test set (n = 186). Furthermore, both gene signatures were associated with human lung cancer risk (n = 164) with significant odds ratios. These results may lead to development of a surveillance approach for early detection of lung cancer and prognosis associated with MWCNT in the workplace.Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 09/2012; 75(18):1129-53. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2012.699852 · 1.83 Impact Factor