Cysteine-scanning analysis of helices TM8, TM9a, and TM9b and intervening loops in the YgfO xanthine permease: a carboxyl group is essential at ASP-276.
ABSTRACT Bacterial and fungal members of the ubiquitous nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (NAT/NCS2) family use the NAT signature motif, a conserved 11-amino acid sequence between amphipathic helices TM9a and TM9b, to define function and selectivity of the purine binding site. To examine the role of flanking helices TM9a, TM9b, and TM8, we employed Cys-scanning analysis of the xanthine-specific homolog YgfO from Escherichia coli. Using a functional mutant devoid of Cys residues (C-less), each amino acid residue in sequences (259)FLVVGTIYLLSVLEAVGDITATAMVSRRPIQGEEYQSRLKGGVLADGLVSVIASAV(314) and (342)TIAVMLVILGLFP(354) including these TMs (underlined) was replaced individually with Cys, except the irreplaceable Glu-272 and Asp-304, which had been studied previously. Of 67 single Cys mutants, 55 accumulate xanthine to 35-140% of the steady state observed with C-less, five (I265C, D276C, I277C, G299C, L350C) accumulate to low levels (10-20%) and seven (T278C, A279C, T280C, A281C, G305C, G351C, P354C) show negligible expression in the membrane. Extensive mutagenesis reveals that a carboxyl group is needed at Asp-276 for high activity and that D276E differs from wild type as it recognizes 8-methylxanthine (K(i) 79 μm) but fails to recognize 2-thioxanthine, 3-methylxanthine or 6-thioxanthine; bulky replacements of Ala-279 or Thr-280 and replacements of Gly-305, Gly-351, or Pro-354 impair activity or expression. Single Cys mutants V261C, A273C, G275C, and S284C are sensitive to inactivation by N-ethylmaleimide and sensitivity of G275C (IC(50) 15 μm) is enhanced in the presence of substrate. The data suggest that residues crucial for the transport mechanism cluster in two conserved motifs, at the cytoplasmic end of TM8 (EXXGDXXAT) and in TM9a (GXXXDG).
Article: Identification of the substrate recognition and transport pathway in a eukaryotic member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (NAT) family.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using the crystal structure of the uracil transporter UraA of Escherichia coli, we constructed a 3D model of the Aspergillus nidulans uric acid-xanthine/H(+) symporter UapA, which is a prototype member of the Nucleobase-Ascorbate Transporter (NAT) family. The model consists of 14 transmembrane segments (TMSs) divided into a core and a gate domain, the later being distinctly different from that of UraA. By implementing Molecular Mechanics (MM) simulations and quantitative structure-activity relationship (SAR) approaches, we propose a model for the xanthine-UapA complex where the substrate binding site is formed by the polar side chains of residues E356 (TMS8) and Q408 (TMS10) and the backbones of A407 (TMS10) and F155 (TMS3). In addition, our model shows several polar interactions between TMS1-TMS10, TMS1-TMS3, TMS8-TMS10, which seem critical for UapA transport activity. Using extensive docking calculations we identify a cytoplasm-facing substrate trajectory (D360, A363, G411, T416, R417, V463 and A469) connecting the proposed substrate binding site with the cytoplasm, as well as, a possible outward-facing gate leading towards the substrate major binding site. Most importantly, re-evaluation of the plethora of available and analysis of a number of herein constructed UapA mutations strongly supports the UapA structural model. Furthermore, modeling and docking approaches with mammalian NAT homologues provided a molecular rationale on how specificity in this family of carriers might be determined, and further support the importance of selectivity gates acting independently from the major central substrate binding site.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41939. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Mutational analysis and modeling reveal functionally critical residues in transmembrane segments 1 and 3 of the UapA transporter.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Earlier, we identified mutations in the first transmembrane segment (TMS1) of UapA, a uric acid-xanthine transporter in Aspergillus nidulans, that affect its turnover and subcellular localization. Here, we use one of these mutations (H86D) and a novel mutation (I74D) as well as genetic suppressors of them, to show that TMS1 is a key domain for proper folding, trafficking and turnover. Kinetic analysis of mutants further revealed that partial misfolding and deficient trafficking of UapA does not affect its affinity for xanthine transport, but reduces that of uric acid and confers a degree of promiscuity towards the binding of other purines. This result strengthens the idea that subtle interactions among domains not directly involved in substrate binding refine the selectivity of UapA. Characterization of second-site suppressors of H86D revealed a genetic interaction of TMS1 with TMS3, the latter segment shown for the first time to be important for UapA function. Systematic mutational analysis of polar and conserved residues in TMS3 showed that Ser154 is crucial for UapA transport activity. Our results are in agreement with a topological model of UapA built on the recently published structure of UraA, a bacterial homolog of UapA.Journal of Molecular Biology 06/2011; 411(3):567-80. · 4.00 Impact Factor