Although presence of cysticercal antigens in serum is presumed to indicate active cysticercosis not all positive persons are symptomatic. The significance of a positive antigen test in asymptomatic individuals, in predicting development of symptomatic cysticercosis on long-term follow up, is unknown. Forty two of 48 persons from Vellore district, India who were positive for circulating serum cysticercal antigens were followed up for four to five years. None of them developed clinical evidence of neurocysticercosis or subcutaneous cysts. We conclude that asymptomatic individuals with circulating cysticercal antigens have a low risk of developing symptomatic cysticercosis within four to five years.
"Others have reported that monocytes exposed to helminth antigens have an impaired capability to differentiate into DCs 36-37. In addition, infection with metacestodes is accompanied by antigens in circulation 38-39 that might affect the activity of monocytes. To assess if the differentiation of monocytes into DCs was affected by TcES we added these antigens to our cultures at day 0 and 3. We found that there was no difference in the proportion of CD11c+ cells between cultures that received TcES during their differentiation and the ones that received it only as a final challenge, indicating that TcES did not affect the capability of human monocytes to differentiate into DCs (Fig 1B). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogens have developed strategies to modify Dendritic Cells (DCs) phenotypes and impair their functions in order to create a safer environment for their survival. DCs responses to helminths and their derivatives vary among different studies. Here we show that excretory/secretory products of the cestode Taenia crassiceps (TcES) do not induce the maturation of human DCs judged by a lack of increment in the expression of CD83, HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 molecules but enhanced the production of IL-10 and positively modulated the expression of the C-type lectin receptor MGL and negatively modulated the expression of DC-SIGN. Additionally, these antigens were capable of down-modulating the inflammatory response induced by LPS in these cells by reducing the expression of the maturation markers and the production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF, IL-12 and IL-6. The effects of TcES upon the DCs responses to LPS were stronger if cells were exposed during their differentiation to the helminth antigens. All together, these findings suggest the ability of TcES to induce the differentiation of human DCs into a tolerogenic-like phenotype and to inhibit the effects of inflammatory stimuli.
International journal of biological sciences 11/2011; 7(9):1391-400. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic disease of the human brain. Modern imaging studies, CT and MRI, have defined the diagnosis and characterization of the disease. Through these studies the therapeutic approach for each case may be individualized with the aid of antihelmintics, steroids, symptomatic medicines, or surgery. The use of one or various therapeutic measures largely depends on the peculiar combination of number, location, and biological stage of lesions as well as the degree of inflammatory response to the parasites. Although there is not a typical clinical picture of NCC, epilepsy is the most frequent manifestation of parenchymal NCC, whereas hydrocephalus is the most frequent manifestation of meningeal NCC. Eradication of cysticercosis is an attainable goal by public education and sanitary improvement in endemic areas.
Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 09/2011; 11(6):529-35. DOI:10.1007/s11910-011-0226-7 · 3.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cysticercosis, the infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a cause of neurological symptoms including seizures, affecting the quality of life of patients and their families. Diagnosis focuses on brain imaging and serological tests are mostly used as confirmatory tools. Most cases, however, occur in poor endemic areas, where both kinds of diagnostic tools are poorly available. Development of point of care diagnostic tests is one of the most important priorities for cysticercosis researches today. The ideal point of care test would require detection of viable cysticercosis and hopefully identify cases with severe or progressive forms of neurocysticercosis, leading to referral of the patient for specialized medical attention. This manuscript describes the evolution of the serological diagnosis of cysticercosis over time, and the characteristics of the most common currently available tools, their advantages and disadvantages, and their potential use in future diagnostic tests.
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