Transcriptome profiling in neurodegenerative disease.
ABSTRACT Changes in gene expression and splicing patterns (that occur prior to the onset and during the progression of complex diseases) have become a major focus of neurodegenerative disease research. These signature patterns of gene expression provide clues about the mechanisms involved in the molecular pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease and may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic drugs. With the development of array technologies and the very recent RNA-seq technique, our understanding of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease is expanding exponentially. Here, we review the technologies involved in gene expression and splicing analysis and the related literature on three common neurodegenerative diseases: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. A key neuropathological event in AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide. The production and clearance of Abeta in the brain are regulated by a large group of genes. The expression levels of these genes must be fine-tuned in the brain to keep Abeta at a balanced amount under physiological condition. Misregulation of AD genes has been found to either increase AD risk or accelerate the disease progression. In recent years, important progress has been made in uncovering the regulatory elements and transcriptional factors that guide the expression of these genes. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation for the known AD genes and the misregualtion that leads to AD susceptibility.Molecular Brain 10/2013; 6(1):44. · 4.20 Impact Factor
- Child Development 01/2013; 84(1):6-16. · 4.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human frontal lobe has undergone accelerated evolution, leading to the development of unique human features such as language and self-reflection. Cortical grey matter and underlying white matter reflect distinct cellular compositions in the frontal lobe. Surprisingly little is known about the transcriptomal landscape of these distinct regions. Here, for the first time, we report a detailed transcriptomal profile of the frontal grey (GM) and white matter (WM) with resolution to alternatively spliced isoforms obtained using the RNA-Seq approach. We observed more vigorous transcriptome activity in GM compared to WM, presumably because of the presence of cellular bodies of neurons in the GM and RNA associated with the nucleus and perinuclear space. Among the top differentially expressed genes, we also identified a number of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs), specifically expressed in white matter, such as LINC00162. Furthermore, along with confirmation of expression of known markers for neurons and oligodendrocytes, we identified a number of genes and splicing isoforms that are exclusively expressed in GM or WM with examples of GABRB2 and PAK2 transcripts, respectively. Pathway analysis identified distinct physiological and biochemical processes specific to grey and white matter samples with a prevalence of synaptic processes in GM and myelination regulation and axonogenesis in the WM. Our study also revealed that expression of many genes, for example, the GPR123, is characterized by isoform switching, depending in which structure the gene is expressed. Our report clearly shows that GM and WM have perhaps surprisingly divergent transcriptome profiles, reflecting distinct roles in brain physiology. Further, this study provides the first reference data set for a normal human frontal lobe, which will be useful in comparative transcriptome studies of cerebral disorders, in particular, neurodegenerative diseases.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e78480. · 3.73 Impact Factor