Patients with peripheral arterial disease are at increased risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and mortality from coronary artery disease. Smoking should be stopped, and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia should be treated. Statins reduce the incidence of intermittent claudication and increase exercise duration until the onset of intermittent claudication in patients with peripheral arterial disease and hypercholesterolemia. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin or clopidogrel, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and statins, should be given to all patients with peripheral arterial disease. Beta-blockers should be given if coronary artery disease is present. Exercise rehabilitation programs and cilostazol improve exercise time until the onset of intermittent claudication. Indications for lower-extremity angioplasty, preferably with stenting, or bypass surgery are incapacitating claudication interfering with work or lifestyle in patients; limb salvage in patients with limb-threatening ischemia as manifested by rest pain, nonhealing ulcers, infection, or gangrene; and vasculogenic impotence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a major health problem especially when associated to diabetes. Administration of autologous bone marrow cells (BMC) is emerging as a novel intervention to induce therapeutic angiogenesis in experimental ischemic limb models and in patients with PAD. Since tissue ischemia and diabetes are associated with an overwhelming generation of oxygen radicals and detrimental effects due to formation of glycosylation end-products, metabolic intervention with antioxidants and L-arginine can confer beneficial effects beyond those achieved by BMC alone. The effects of cotreatment with intravenous BMCs and metabolic vascular protection (1.0% vitamin E, 0.05% vitamin C, and 6% L-arginine) were examined in the ischemic hindlimb of diabetic and non diabetic mice. BMC therapy increased blood flow and capillary densities and Ki67 proliferative marker, and decreased interstitial fibrosis. This effect was amplified by metabolic cotreatment, an intervention inducing vascular protection, at least in part, through the nitric oxide pathway, reduction of systemic oxidative stress, and macrophage activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vascular diseases, hypertension and atherosclerosis, affect millions of individuals worldwide, and account for a large number of deaths globally. A better understanding of the mechanism of these conditions will lead to more specific and effective therapies. Hypertension and atherosclerosis are both characterized by insulin resistance, and we suggest that this plays a major role in their etiology. The cause of insulin resistance is not known, but may be a result of a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. In insulin resistance, alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism lead to the production of excess aldehydes including glyoxal and methylglyoxal. These aldehydes react non-enzymatically with free amino and sulfhydryl groups of amino acids of proteins to form stable conjugates called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs act directly, as well as via receptors to alter the function of many intra- and extracellular proteins including antioxidant and metabolic enzymes, calcium channels, lipoproteins, and transcriptional and structural proteins. This results in endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and oxidative stress. All these changes are characteristic of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that increased AGEs are also associated with these conditions. A pathological role for AGEs is substantiated by studies showing that therapies that attenuate insulin resistance and/or lower AGEs, are effective in decreasing oxidative stress, lowering blood pressure, and attenuating atherosclerotic vascular changes. These interventions include lipoic acid and other antioxidants, AGE breakers or soluble receptors of AGEs, and aldehyde-binding agents like cysteine. Such therapies may offer alternative specific means to treat hypertension and atherosclerosis. An adjunct therapy may be to implement lifestyle changes such as weight reduction, regular exercise, smoking cessation, and increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables that also decrease insulin resistance as well as oxidative stress.
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