Effect of Dietary Garlic on Serum Antibody Titer Against Newcastle Disease Vaccine in Broiler Chicks
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of garlic, in powder form, on serological response of broilers to NDV (Newcastle Disease Virus) vaccine. Two hundred and eighty, day-old, Ross chicks were randomly divided into groups A, B (52 each), C and D (88 each). The birds in groups A and B received control diet during the experiment, but those in groups C and D were given control diet supplemented with 1 and 3% garlic powder, respectively. After 2nd bleeding, half of the chicks in groups C and D were separated as groups E and F and fed control diet afterwards. At 9 days of age, all groups except A were inoculated with a killed NDV vaccine (Merial, France) subcutaneously and with B1 strain (Merial, France) by eye drop. Fifteen chicks were bled from each group on days 14, 24 and 34 post vaccination and also five just before vaccination. The sera were assayed for antibody against NDV by both HI and ELISA tests. The results showed that antibody titers were significantly higher in vaccinated chicks than in non-vaccinated chicks (p<0.05), but there were no significant effects of treatment on antibody level (p>0.05). Furthermore, the removal of garlic from diet had no effect on serum titer (p>0.05). It is concluded that diet supplementation with garlic powder can not enhance the serological response of broilers to NDV vaccine.
Conference Proceeding: Reprogrammable, wide tuning range 1.6 GHz CMOS VCO with low phase noise variation[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is difficult to obtain simultaneously a large tuning range, low phase noise, and small phase noise variation, particularly while accommodating manufacturing and packaging tolerances. This work describes the first use of native EPROM devices (available in every standard CMOS technology) and switched reactances to relax these tradeoffs. In addition to permitting post-packaging compensation for manufacturing variations, the inherent reprogrammability of these cells also enables the rapid prototyping and optional reconfiguration of RF and mixed-signal systems. This technology allows the realization of a fully-integrated oscillator in 0.25 /spl mu/m CMOS with a phase noise variation of under 10 dB (compared with 40 dB variation in a conventional implementation) over a 1.25 GHz to 1.92 GHz (42%) tuning range. The oscillator consumes 23 mW from a 3 V supply while exhibiting a phase noise of better than -93dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset from a nominal 1.58 GHz center frequency.Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, 2004. Digest of Papers. 2004 IEEE; 07/2004