Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Quality of Lahore Area, Punjab, Pakistan
ABSTRACT The ground water quality of Lahore (Pakistan) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for domestic applications. Sixty ground water samples form shallow and deep wells were collected each during pre and post-monsoon seasons in the month of May and November 2004, respectively. Various water quality constituents pH, conductance, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, hardness, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate and fluoride have been determined. The data was analyzed with reference to NEQS and WHO standards, ionic relationships were studied and hydro chemical facies were determined. Distribution of various constituents indicates that about 10-20% samples of the study area crosses the maximum permissible limit for TDS, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sulphate and fluoride while 20-30% samples crosses the limit for nitrate. The ground water of the study area has also been classified to study various hydro chemical processes.