The ability of thin conductive polythiophene layers to dissipate electrons in electron-beam lithography (EBL) process on bulk zinc oxide (ZnO) samples is shown. High energy electron-beam exposure of relatively thick (650 nm-thick) hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) negative-type resist deposited on ZnO was investigated for three different cases. In turn, no charge dissipation layer, 40 nm-thick Al and 100 nm-thick conductive polymer layers were used on the top of HSQ resist. A quick and inexpensive processing method with the use of polymer is shown for an EBL exposure of dense and high-resolution patterns in HSQ/ZnO samples
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Charging of insulating substrates is a common problem during Electron Beam lithography (EBL), which deflects the beam and distorts the pattern. A homogeneous, electrically conductive, and transparent graphene layer is used as a discharge layer for EBL processes on insulating substrates. The EBL resolution is improved compared with the metal discharge layer. Dense arrays of holes with diameters of 50 nm and gratings with line/space of 50/30 nm are obtained on quartz substrate. The pattern placement errors and proximity effect are suppressed over a large area and high quality complex nanostructures are fabricated using graphene as a conductive layer.
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