Identification and Distribution of Bacillus Species in Doenjang by Whole-Cell Protein Patterns and 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis
ABSTRACT Many bacteria are involved in fermentation of doenjang and Bacillus species are known to perform significant roles. Although the SDS-PAGE technique has been frequently used for classification and identification of bacteria in various samples, there has been no investigation of the microbial diversity in doenjang. This study aims to investigate the identification and distribution of dominant Bacillus species in doenjang using SDS-PAGE profiles of whole cell proteins and 16S rDNA sequencing. SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins of the reference Bacillus strains yielded differential banding patterns that could be considered to be highly specific fingerprints. Bacterial strains isolated from doenjang samples were grouped using whole cell protein patterns, which were confirmed by the analysis of 16S rDNA sequencing. B. subtilis was found to be the most dominant strain in most of the samples, and B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens were less frequently detected. The results obtained in this study showed that a combined identification method, SDS-PAGE patterns of whole cell proteins and subsequent 16S rDNA sequence analysis, could successfully identify Bacillus species isolated from doenjang.
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ABSTRACT: RATIONALEDue to increases in greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to explore renewable sources of energy. Interesting alternatives are biofuels derived from microalgae. One challenge is the development of a detailed microalgae database compiling species identifications and characterizations that would facilitate microalgae selection for biomass production. Mass spectrometric (MS) analysis using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) source is an advanced technique that enables advancement in this biological area. In this work a MALDI time-of-flight (TOF)MS method for the rapid identification of proteins in whole cells of selected microalgae species was studied. Furthermore, the efficiency of different matrix and solvent systems was tested. MS analyses were performed using an UltrafleXtreme MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer operating in linear positive ion mode.METHODS Mass spectra were acquired in a mass range from 4000 to 20,000 Da with ions generated from Smartbeam laser irradiation using a frequency of 2000 Hz, a PIE 100 ns and a lens 7 kV. The voltage was 25 kV for the first ion source and 23 kV for the second. Each spectrum was generated by averaging of 10,000 laser shots and the laser irradiance was set at 95–100%.RESULTSSimilar mass spectra were obtained for all matrices (SA, HCCA, DHB and sDHB); however, the use of the sDHB matrix resulted in spectrum profiles with a greater amount number of proteins, a better signal/noise (S/N) ratio and higher intensities for the majority of microalgae analyzed. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content was also studied and the best results in terms of S/N ratio, number of proteins and signal intensities were obtained with 0.1% TFA in the matrix solvent. The addition of isopropanol did not produce improvement in the quality of spectrum profiles.CONCLUSIONS Therefore, the optimal matrix for the analysis of protein from intact microalgae cells is sDHB with TA50 as the matrix solvent and without isopropanol. These conditions allow the acquisition of high quality spectrum profiles. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2015; 29(3). DOI:10.1002/rcm.7110 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of blaNDM-1 (encoding New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1) in Enterobacteriaceae and the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC) in China from July 2011 to June 2012. PCR was used to screen for the presence of blaNDM-1 in all organisms studied. For blaNDM-1-positive strains, 16S rRNA analysis and Analytical Profile Index (API) strips were used to identify the bacterial genus and species. The ABCs were reconfirmed by PCR detection of blaOXA-51-like. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the bacteria were assessed by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of them using two-fold agar dilution test, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Molecular typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). S1 nuclease-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) and Southern blot hybridization were conducted to ascertain the gene location of blaNDM-1. Conjugation experiments were conducted to determine the transmission of blaNDM-1-positive strains. Among 2,170 Enterobacteriaceae and 600 ABCs, seven Enterobacteriaceae strains and two A. calcoaceticus isolates from five different cities carried the blaNDM-1 gene. The seven Enterobacteriaceae strains comprised four Klebsiella pneumoniae, one Enterobacter cloacae, one Enterobacter aerogen and one Citrobacter freundii. All seven were non-susceptible to imipenem, meropenem or ertapenem. Two A. calcoaceticus species were resistant to imipenem and meropenem. Three K. pneumoniae showed the same PFGE profiles. The blaNDM-1 genes of eight strains were localized on plasmids, while one was chromosomal. Compared with previous reports, the numbers and species containing the blaNDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae have significantly increased in China. Most of them are able to disseminate the gene, which is cause for concern. Consecutive surveillance should be implemented and should also focus on the dissemination of blaNDM-1 among gram-negative clinical isolates.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113852. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113852 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The emergence and wide distribution of the transferable gene for linezolid resistance, cfr, in staphylococci of human and animal origins is of great concern as it poses a serious threat to the public health. In the present study, we investigated the emergence and presence of the multiresistance gene, cfr, in retail meat sourced from supermarkets and free markets of Guangzhou, China.BMC Microbiology 06/2014; 14(1):151. DOI:10.1186/1471-2180-14-151 · 2.98 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.