Identification and distribution of Bacillus species in doenjang by whole-cell protein patterns and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.
ABSTRACT Many bacteria are involved in fermentation of doenjang and Bacillus species are known to perform significant roles. Although the SDS-PAGE technique has been frequently used for classification and identification of bacteria in various samples, there has been no investigation of the microbial diversity in doenjang. This study aims to investigate the identification and distribution of dominant Bacillus species in doenjang using SDS-PAGE profiles of whole cell proteins and 16S rDNA sequencing. SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins of the reference Bacillus strains yielded differential banding patterns that could be considered to be highly specific fingerprints. Bacterial strains isolated from doenjang samples were grouped using whole cell protein patterns, which were confirmed by the analysis of 16S rDNA sequencing. B. subtilis was found to be the most dominant strain in most of the samples, and B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens were less frequently detected. The results obtained in this study showed that a combined identification method, SDS-PAGE patterns of whole cell proteins and subsequent 16S rDNA sequence analysis, could successfully identify Bacillus species isolated from doenjang.
Article: Identification of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 in Acinetobacter lwoffii of food animal origin.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes and the genetic environment of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene bla(NDM-1) in bacteria of food animal origin. Gram-negative bacteria with low susceptibility to imipenem (MIC>8 µg/mL) were isolated from swab samples collected from 15 animal farms and one slaughterhouse in eastern China. These bacteria were selected for phenotypic and molecular detection of known MBL genes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For the bla(NDM-1) positive isolate, conjugation and transformation experiments were carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the bla(NDM-1) genes, and DNA sequencing was performed to determine the sequences of bla(NDM-1) and the flanking genes. In total, nine gram-negative bacteria of four different species presented a MBL phenotype. bla(NDM-1) was identified on a mobile plasmid named pAL-01 in an Acinetobacter lwoffii isolate of chicken origin. Transfer of pAL-01 from this isolate to E. coli J53 and JM109 resulted in resistance to multiple β-lactams. Sequence analysis revealed that the bla(NDM-1) gene is attached to an intact insertion element ISAba125, whose right inverted repeat (IR-R) overlaps with the promoter sequence of bla(NDM-1). Thus, insertion of ISAba125 likely enhances the expression of bla(NDM-1). The identification of a bla(NDM-1)- carrying strain of A. lwoffii in chickens suggests the potential for zoonotic transmission of bla(NDM-1) and has important implications for food safety.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37152. · 4.09 Impact Factor