TNF increases expression of IL-4 and PARs in mast cells
ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a proinflammatory cytokine which has been shown to be actively involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. However, little is known of the effects of TNF on cytokine secretion and protease activated receptor (PAR) expression in mast cells. In the present study, we examined potential influence of TNF on IL-4 and IL-12 release from P815 cells and PAR expression in P815 cells by using flow cytometry analysis, quantitative real time PCR, ELISA and cellular activation of signaling ELISA (CASE) techniques. The results showed that TNF induced up to 2.7-fold increase in IL-4, but not IL-12 release from P815 cells, and PAR-2 antagonist peptide FSLLRY-NH(2) and PAR-4 antagonist peptide trans-cinnamoyl (tc)-YPGKF-NH(2) did not affect TNF induced IL-4 release. Approximately up to 2.4 and 2.3 fold increases in expression of PAR-2 and PAR-4 were observed when cells were incubated with TNF. Pretreatment of cells with TNF for 60 min enhanced trypsin and tryptase induced PAR-2 expression by 2.4 and 2.3 fold; PAR-3 expression by 1.6 and 1.7 fold and PAR-4 expression by 1.6 and 1.7 fold, respectively. LY294002, an inhibitor PI3K abolished TNF induced IL-4 release and phosphorylation of Akt in P815 cells, indicating Akt cell signalling pathway is involved in the event. In conclusion, TNF can stimulate IL-4 release from mast cells through an Akt cell signalling pathway dependent, but PAR independent mechanism. TNF may serve as a regulator for IL-4 production and PAR expression, and through which participates in the mast cell related inflammation.
- SourceAvailable from: Xiaoning Zeng
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- "TNF also elevates PAR-2 expression on HMC-1 mast cells , and IL-12 upregulates PAR-4 expression on MC/9 mast cells . Furthermore, tryptase-induced PAR-2 expression can be enhanced by IL-12 , TNF , RANTES , and IL-29 , and tryptase-induced PAR-3 and PAR-4 expression is upregulated by TNF on P815 mast cells . It is also observed that trypsin-induced expression of PAR-1, -2, and -4 can be enhanced by RANTES  (Table 1). "
ABSTRACT: Protease activated receptors (PARs) have been recognized as a distinctive four-member family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be cleaved by certain serine proteases. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the role of PARs in allergic inflammation, the fundamental pathologic changes of allergy, but the potential roles of PARs in allergy remain obscure. Since many of these proteases are produced and actively involved in the pathologic process of inflammation including exudation of plasma components, inflammatory cell infiltration, and tissue damage and repair, PARs appear to make important contribution to allergy. The aim of the present review is to summarize the expression of PARs in inflammatory and structural cells, the influence of agonists or antagonists of PARs on cell behavior, and the involvement of PARs in allergic disorders, which will help us to better understand the roles of serine proteases and PARs in allergy.Mediators of Inflammation 04/2014; 2014:829068. DOI:10.1155/2014/829068 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The last decade identified cytokines as one group of major local cell signaling molecules related to bladder dysfunction like interstitial cystitis (IC) and overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is essential for the coordination of normal bladder function and has been found to be altered in bladder dysfunction. Connexin (Cx) 43 and Cx45 are the most important gap junction proteins in bladder smooth muscle cells (hBSMC) and suburothelial myofibroblasts (hsMF). Modulation of connexin expression by cytokines has been demonstrated in various tissues. Therefore, we investigate the effect of interleukin (IL) 4, IL6, IL10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFβ1) on GJIC, and Cx43 and Cx45 expression in cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells (hBSMC) and human suburothelial myofibroblasts (hsMF). HBSMC and hsMF cultures were set up from bladder tissue of patients undergoing cystectomy. In cytokine stimulated cultured hBSMC and hsMF GJIC was analyzed via Fluorescence Recovery after Photo-bleaching (FRAP). Cx43 and Cx45 expression was assessed by quantitative PCR and confocal immunofluorescence. Membrane protein fraction of Cx43 and Cx45 was quantified by Dot Blot. Upregulation of cell-cell-communication was found after IL6 stimulation in both cell types. In hBSMC IL4 and TGFβ1 decreased both, GJIC and Cx43 protein expression, while TNFα did not alter communication in FRAP-experiments but increased Cx43 expression. GJ plaques size correlated with coupling efficacy measured, while Cx45 expression did not correlate with modulation of GJIC. Our finding of specific cytokine effects on GJIC support the notion that cytokines play a pivotal role for pathophysiology of OAB and IC. Interestingly, the effects were independent from the classical definition of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines. We conclude, that connexin regulation involves genomic and/or post-translational events, and that GJIC in hBSMC and hsMF depend of Cx43 rather than on Cx45.PLoS ONE 06/2011; 6(6):e20792. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0020792 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is unknown, but in some cases involves the accumulation of mast cells, neutrophils, or both in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The objective of this study was to characterize cytokine gene expression in the BALF cells of horses with IAD, including a comparison of cytokine gene expression between IAD horses with increased BALF mast cells (IAD-Mast) or neutrophils (IAD-Neutro). The mRNA expression of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p35, and eotaxin-2 was studied by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) with efficiency correction in BALF samples of 17 horses with IAD (IAD-total), also subcategorized as 8 IAD-Mast and 9 IAD-Neutro, and 10 controls. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as a reference gene. Relative expression software tool (REST) analysis provided ratios of expression, statistical analysis, and confidence intervals for the results. Compared with the control group, IL-5, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 mRNA expression was upregulated 3.5-, 3.4-, 2.8-, 2.2-, and 1.9-fold, respectively, in the IAD-total group. The IAD-Neutro group showed increased expression of IL-17, IL-8, and IL-5 (4.7-, 2.5-, and 2.9-fold, respectively) and a decreased expression of IL-4 (3.4-fold) compared with the IAD-Mast group. Cytokines from the Th2 family plays a key role in IAD and a different pathophysiology may be involved in mast cell versus neutrophil BALF accumulation in IAD horses.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12/2011; 26(1):153-61. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00847.x · 2.22 Impact Factor