In experimental studies parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been associated with underlying causes of heart failure (HF) such as atherosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial fibrosis. Individuals with increased levels of PTH, such as primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism patients, have increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and HF. Moreover, increasing PTH is associated with worse prognosis in patients with overt HF. However, the association between PTH and the development HF in the community has not been reported.
In a prospective, community-based study of 864 elderly men without HF or valvular disease at baseline (mean age 71 years, the ULSAM study) the association between plasma (P)-PTH and HF hospitalization was investigated adjusted for established HF risk factors (myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, smoking, and hypercholesterolaemia) and variables reflecting mineral metabolism (S-calcium, S-phosphate, P-vitamin D, S-albumin, dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, physical activity, glomerular filtration rate, and blood draw season). During follow-up (median 8 years), 75 individuals were hospitalized due to HF. In multivariable Cox-regression analyses, higher P-PTH was associated with increased HF hospitalization (hazard ratio for 1-SD increase of PTH, 1.41, 95% CI 1.12-1.77, P = 0.003). Parathyroid hormone also predicted hospitalization in participants without apparent ischaemic HF and in participants with normal P-PTH.
In a large community-based sample of elderly men, PTH predicted HF hospitalizations, also after accounting for established risk factors and mineral metabolism variables. Our data suggest a role for PTH in the development of HF even in the absence of overt hyperparathyroidism.
"The upregulation and expression of endothelial parameters involved in vascular calcification was shown both in vitro and in vivo following continuous stimulation or infusion of PTH [34, 35]. In humans, evidence supports greater CVD risk in primary hyperparathyroidism, and further observational and epidemiological studies have linked increased PTH levels (above the normal limit) to left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [36, 37, 38]. However, it would be considerate to evaluate PTH regulation, an integral part of bone and mineral metabolism, in conjunction to serum calcium and phosphorus since serum phosphorus has also been identified as an independent factor of the presence and progression of vascular calcification. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pathophysiology of coronary artery disease in CKD is multifactorial including, in addition to traditional risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus), parameters related to uremia.
The study consisted of measuring coronary artery calcification (CAC) score in patients with CKD stage III and IV without history of CVD and in a group of controls with normal renal function matched for age, gender and risk factors using multi-detector computed tomography.
The study included 49 patients and 49 controls. CAC was present in 79.6% in the CKD group versus 59.2% in the control group (p = 0.028). The median CAC score value in CKD patients was 139 (interquartile range (IQR): 23-321) versus 61 (IQR: 6-205) in controls (p = 0.007). CAC was associated with traditional risk factors such as older age, hypertension and baseline cardiovascular risk score, while CKD patients with severe calcification had marginally lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and increased levels of parathormone.
CAC is more frequent and severe in patients with CKD stage III and IV compared to matched controls with normal renal function, even though kidney disease-related parameters are not directly correlated with intensity of calcification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular complications are the main cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Among these complications, calcific arteriosclerosis and myocardial hypertrophy are the main predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies have shown their association with hyperparathyroidism, which has therefore been included among the non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Studies in laboratory animals have shown that PTH administration may induce calcific arteriosclerosis and myocardial hypertrophy. The former develops independently of hyperphosphatemia, but its mechanisms remain unknown. The latter is characterized by increased thickness of the myocardial fibers and especially the fibrous interstitium; its development is influenced by protein kinase C activation and the subsequent increase in cytosolic calcium as well as activation of intracellular signaling pathways inducing protein synthesis and proliferation. Different from these findings, in other studies PTH infusion was able to produce vasodilatation and to favor myocardial cell contraction and regeneration. These effects depend on protein kinase A activation. PTH may produce different and sometimes contradictory functional effects in the arteries and myocardium that are probably related to different experimental or clinical conditions. In patients with CKD and hyperparathyroidism, PTH may be considered a uremic toxin exerting its effects mainly by increasing cellular calcium. Thus, hyperparathyroidism is confirmed to be a target for the conservative therapy of CKD.
Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 28(4):383-92.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurohormonal activation involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adrenergic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems is integral to stressor state-mediated homeostatic responses. The levels of effector hormones, depending upon the degree of stress, orchestrate the concordant appearance of hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, hypozincemia, and hyposelenemia. Seemingly contradictory to homeostatic responses wherein the constancy of extracellular fluid would be preserved, upregulation of cognate-binding proteins promotes coordinated translocation of cations to injured tissues, where they participate in wound healing. Associated catecholamine-mediated intracellular cation shifts regulate the equilibrium between pro-oxidants and antioxidant defenses, a critical determinant of cell survival. These acute and chronic stressor-induced iterations in extracellular and intracellular cations are collectively referred to as the cation crossroads. Intracellular cation shifts, particularly excessive accumulation of Ca2+, converge on mitochondria to induce oxidative stress and raise the opening potential of their inner membrane permeability transition pores (mPTPs). The ensuing loss of cationic homeostasis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, together with osmotic swelling, leads to organellar degeneration and cellular necrosis. The overall impact of iterations in extracellular and intracellular cations and their influence on cardiac redox state, cardiomyocyte survival, and myocardial structure and function are addressed herein.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 12/2010; 29(6):563-74. DOI:10.1080/07315724.2010.10719895 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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