Glycemic Control in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes Declines as Early as Two Years after Diagnosis
ABSTRACT To determine the course of glycemic decline in a pediatric cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by defining longitudinal changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and insulin requirement. We also followed markers of insulin reserve (fasting C-peptide and IGFBP-1) over time.
Participants included two groups: (1) T2DM Nonacidotic (NA) (n = 46); and (2) T2DM diabetic ketoacidosis (n = 13). HbA1c, insulin dose, and fasting C-peptide and IGFBP-1 were obtained at baseline and every 6 months for 4 years.
At baseline, Mann Whitney tests demonstrated that the diabetic ketoacidosis group had higher HbA1c (P = .002), required more insulin (P = .036), and had lower C-peptide (P = .003) than the NA group. Baseline insulin dose (Spearman r = -0.424, P = .009) and baseline IGFBP-1 (Spearman r = -0.349, P = .046) correlated negatively with C-peptide. Over time, HbA1c, insulin dose, and C-peptide changed significantly in a complex manner, with group differences. HbA1c reached a nadir at 6 to 12 months and began to rise after 1.5 years. Insulin requirements reached a nadir at 1 year and began to rise after 2 years.
Unlike adults, children with T2DM require increasing insulin doses over a 4-year period, and diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis predicts greater β-cell decline over time.
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ABSTRACT: Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is a rare condition at risk for overwhelming infection. When complicated by invasive infection, the mortality remains high, at greater than 60%. We describe a girl with ICA who developed recurrent meningitis by three different pathogens. The first, meningitis by Escherichia coli, occurred 4 days after premature birth. The other two pathogens were serotype 6B Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), at 18 and 25 months of age, respectively. The patient was successfully treated with prompt antimicrobial therapy in all episodes. Serum anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) and anti-6B-type pneumococcal antibodies were below the levels for protective activity after natural infections. Although anti-PRP antibody was significantly increased after Hib vaccination, two (6B and 19F) of seven serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies were not elevated to protective levels after the second 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). We, therefore, added a third PCV7. To our knowledge, this is the first neonatal ICA patient with invasive infection and the first case of bacterial meningitis occurring three times. Our findings indicate that monitoring of immune responses after natural infections and vaccinations, and reevaluations of vaccine schedule, are important for ICA patients to prevent subsequent invasive infections.Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 11/2011; 18(4):576-80. DOI:10.1007/s10156-011-0341-z · 1.49 Impact Factor
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