Glycemic Control in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes Declines as Early as Two Years after Diagnosis

Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4399, USA.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.74). 01/2011; 158(1):106-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.07.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine the course of glycemic decline in a pediatric cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by defining longitudinal changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and insulin requirement. We also followed markers of insulin reserve (fasting C-peptide and IGFBP-1) over time.
Participants included two groups: (1) T2DM Nonacidotic (NA) (n = 46); and (2) T2DM diabetic ketoacidosis (n = 13). HbA1c, insulin dose, and fasting C-peptide and IGFBP-1 were obtained at baseline and every 6 months for 4 years.
At baseline, Mann Whitney tests demonstrated that the diabetic ketoacidosis group had higher HbA1c (P = .002), required more insulin (P = .036), and had lower C-peptide (P = .003) than the NA group. Baseline insulin dose (Spearman r = -0.424, P = .009) and baseline IGFBP-1 (Spearman r = -0.349, P = .046) correlated negatively with C-peptide. Over time, HbA1c, insulin dose, and C-peptide changed significantly in a complex manner, with group differences. HbA1c reached a nadir at 6 to 12 months and began to rise after 1.5 years. Insulin requirements reached a nadir at 1 year and began to rise after 2 years.
Unlike adults, children with T2DM require increasing insulin doses over a 4-year period, and diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis predicts greater β-cell decline over time.

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