Recurrent aberrations identified by array-CGH in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.
ABSTRACT To identify genetic causes of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome.
Prospective laboratory study.
Fifty-six patients with MRKH syndrome.
Identification of microdeletions and -duplications in a group of 48 MRKH patients by array-CGH. Results obtained by array-CGH were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Sequential analysis of two candidate genes LHX1 and HNF1B in a group of 56 MRKH patients.
Identification of chromosomal regions and genes (recurrent and private) associated with MRKH syndrome.
We could delineate three definitively relevant regions (1q21.1, 17q12, and 22q11.21) and suggest that LHX1 und HNF1B are candidate genes for MRKH syndrome, because we identified recurrent deletions affecting these genes and a possible causative missense mutation in LHX1.
Our findings suggest that different chromosomal regions are associated with MRKH syndrome.
Article: A combination of transcriptome and methylation analyses reveals embryologically-relevant candidate genes in MRKH patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is present in at least 1 out of 4,500 female live births and is the second most common cause for primary amenorrhea. It is characterized by vaginal and uterine aplasia in an XX individual with normal secondary characteristics. It has long been considered a sporadic anomaly, but familial clustering occurs. Several candidate genes have been studied although no single factor has yet been identified. Cases of discordant monozygotic twins suggest that the involvement of epigenetic factors is more likely. Differences in gene expression and methylation patterns of uterine tissue between eight MRKH patients and eight controls were identified using whole-genome microarray analyses. Results obtained by expression and methylation arrays were confirmed by qRT-PCR and pyrosequencing. We delineated 293 differentially expressed and 194 differentially methylated genes of which nine overlap in both groups. These nine genes are mainly embryologically relevant for the development of the female genital tract. Our study used, for the first time, a combined whole-genome expression and methylation approach to reveal the etiology of the MRKH syndrome. The findings suggest that either deficient estrogen receptors or the ectopic expression of certain HOXA genes might lead to abnormal development of the female reproductive tract. In utero exposure to endocrine disruptors or abnormally high maternal hormone levels might cause ectopic expression or anterior transformation of HOXA genes. It is, however, also possible that different factors influence the anti-Mullerian hormone promoter activity during embryological development causing regression of the Müllerian ducts. Thus, our data stimulate new research directions to decipher the pathogenic basis of MRKH syndrome.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2011; 6:32. · 5.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Müllerian aplasia (MA) characterized by congenital loss of functional uterus and vagina is one of the most difficult disorders of female reproductive health. Despite of growing interest in this research field, the cause of the disorder for the majority of patients is still unknown. A recent report of partial SHOX duplications in five patients with MA has motivated us to further evaluate their role in the disorder. Therefore we have studied SHOX copy number variations (CNVs) in a cohort of 101 Finnish patients with MA and in 115 healthy controls. We used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to study SHOX CNVs. All patients showed normal amplification of SHOX. Several aberrations, duplications and deletions, were found downstream of the gene in five patients and seven controls, but these were all copy number polymorphisms. Our study in an extensive cohort of patients with MA does not support a role for SHOX CNVs in the aetiology of the disorder. Further studies in the field are important for both patients looking for answers as well as for the scientific community for better understanding the regulation of the female reproductive duct development.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2011; 6:53. · 5.83 Impact Factor
Article: A complex microdeletion 17q12 phenotype in a patient with recurrent de novo membranous nephropathy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microdeletions on chromosome 17q12 cause of diverse spectrum of disorders and have only recently been identified as a rare cause of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser-Syndrome (MRKH), which is characterized by uterus aplasia ± partial/complete vaginal aplasia in females with a regular karyotype. For the first time we report about a patient with a 17q12 microdeletion who is affected by MRKH in combination with a vascular and soft tissue disorder. Repeatedly she suffered from kidney transplant failure caused by consuming membranous nephropathy. A 38-year-old female patient had been diagnosed with right kidney aplasia, left kidney dysplasia and significantly impaired renal function during infancy. Aged 16 she had to start hemodialysis. Three years later she received her first kidney transplant. Only then she was diagnosed with MRKH. The kidney transplant was lost due to consuming nephrotic syndrome caused by de novo membranous nephropathy, as was a second kidney transplant years later. In addition, a hyperelasticity syndrome affects the patient with congenital joint laxity, kyphoscoliosis, bilateral hip dysplasia, persistent hypermobility of both elbows, knees and hips. Her clinical picture resembles a combination of traits of a hypermobile and a vascular form of Ehlers-Danlos-Syndrome, but no mutations in the COL3A1 gene was underlying. Instead, array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) detected a heterozygous 1.43 Mb deletion on chromosome 17q12 encompassing the two renal developmental genes HNF1β and LHX1. Deletions of HNF1β have recently drawn significant attention in pediatric nephrology as an important cause of prenatally hyperechogenic kidneys, renal aplasia and renal hypodysplasia. In contrast, membranous nephropathy represents an often-unaccounted cause of nephrotic syndrome in the adult population. A causative connection between theses two conditions has never been postulated, but is suggestive enough in this case to hypothesize it.BMC Nephrology 05/2012; 13:27. · 2.18 Impact Factor