Activation of adenosine A2A receptors by polydeoxyribonucleotide increases vascular endothelial growth factor and protects against testicular damage induced by experimental varicocele in rats.
ABSTRACT In rat experimental varicocele, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, thereby enhancing testicular function. This may point to a new therapeutic approach in human varicocele.
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ABSTRACT: Varicocoele is an important cause of male infertility. Normal male reproductive function and fertility depends on a delicate balance between androgen receptor (AR) and the classic oestrogen receptors ESR1 (ERα) and ESR2 (ERβ). Using a model of surgically induced varicocoele in rats, this study aimed to investigate the effects of varicocoele on the expression of AR, ESR1, ESR2 and G-protein coupled oestrogen receptor (GPER). Varicocoele did not affect the mRNA and protein expression of ESR1 and ESR2 in both testes. Varicocoele did not affect the mRNA and protein expression of GPER in the right testis, but slightly reduced the mRNA and increased the protein levels in the left testis. Varicocoele did not affect the mRNA for AR, but reduced the protein levels in both testes. A proteomic approach was used in an attempt to find differentially expressed targets with possible correlation with AR downregulation. Varicocoele caused the differential expression of 29 proteins. Six proteins were upregulated, including the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), and 23 were downregulated, including dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and pyrophosphatase 1. Western blot analysis confirmed that varicocoele upregulated the expression of RACK1, a protein involved with tyrosine phosphorylation and regulation of AR transcriptional activity, AR metabolism and dynamics of the blood-testis barrier. In conclusion, this study suggests that varicocoele affects mechanisms that control AR expression and function. This regulation of AR may play an important role in the varicocoele-induced testicular dysfunction. Furthermore, varicocoele downregulates several other proteins in the testis that may be useful markers of spermatozoa function and male infertility.Andrology 07/2013; DOI:10.1111/j.2047-2927.2013.00103.x · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Varicocele is the most common and treatable cause of male infertility. Studies of a rat experimental left varicocele model and human testicular biopsy samples have shown the involvement of various factors in its pathophysiology. Among them, oxidative stress plays a major role in impairing spermatogenesis and sperm function. Therefore, in addition to palpation, scrotal ultrasonography and color Doppler ultrasound, evaluation of testicular oxidative stress (e.g. scrotal temperature is a surrogate parameter) is recommended to enable diagnosis and suitable treatment of varicocele. Varicocelectomy increases the fertilization, pregnancy and live birth rates, indicating improved sperm function; it is therefore important even in couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Routine sperm‐function tests are warranted to monitor the sperm quality after varicocelectomy and consequent improvement in the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology. Furthermore, the indications of varicocelectomy in assisted reproductive technology should be widened.
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aescin treatment in a rodent model treated with an experimentally induced varicocele. Experimental varicocele was induced by partial ligation of the left renal vein of rats. Aescin administration was performed daily for 4 weeks after the varicocele induction. Seven weeks later, a contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed of the rats' testis to assess testicular blood flow. The animals were sacrificed, and H&E staining was then used to evaluate testicular pathological changes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes density. Cauda epididymal sperm counts and motility were evaluated. Blood was collected for the measurement of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and testosterone. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound showed that there were significant decreases in testicular blood flow in the aescin-treated groups compared with those in control varicocele group. Testicular oedema was detected in those rats treated with a varicocele but without aescin, while no oedema was found in the experimental group. H&E staining showed dysfunctional spermatogenesis in both cohorts; however, polymorphonuclear leucocytes density was significantly reduced in aescin-treated groups. There was an increase in sperm counts of the aescin-treated groups. Our study demonstrated that aescin could exert therapeutical effects on reversal of testicular lesions in varicocele rats.Andrologia 05/2013; DOI:10.1111/and.12107 · 1.17 Impact Factor