A Mutation in ZNF513, a Putative Regulator of Photoreceptor Development, Causes Autosomal-Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa
ABSTRACT Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited retinal degenerations characterized clinically by night blindness, progressive constriction of the visual fields, and loss of vision, and pathologically by progressive loss of rod and then cone photoreceptors. Autosomal-recessive RP (arRP) in a consanguineous Pakistani family previously linked to chromosome 2p22.3-p24.1 is shown to result from a homozygous missense mutation (c.1015T>C [p.C339R]) in ZNF513, encoding a presumptive transcription factor. znf513 is expressed in the retina, especially in the outer nuclear layer, inner nuclear layer, and photoreceptors. Knockdown of znf513 in zebrafish reduces eye size, retinal thickness, and expression of rod and cone opsins and causes specific loss of photoreceptors. These effects are rescued by coinjection with wild-type (WT) but not p.C339R-znf513 mRNA. Both normal and p.C339R mutant ZNF513 proteins expressed in COS-7 cells localize to the nucleus. ChIP analysis shows that only the wild-type but not the mutant ZNF513 binds to the Pax6, Sp4, Arr3, Irbp, and photoreceptor opsin promoters. These results suggest that the ZNF513 p.C339R mutation is responsible for RP in this family and that ZNF513 plays a key role in the regulation of photoreceptor-specific genes in retinal development and photoreceptor maintenance.
SourceAvailable from: Raheel Qamar[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The customary consanguineous nuptials in Pakistan underlie the frequent occurrence of autosomal recessive inherited disorders, including retinal dystrophy (RD). In many studies, homozygosity mapping has been shown to be successful in mapping susceptibility loci for autosomal recessive inherited disease. RDs are the most frequent cause of inherited blindness worldwide. To date there is no comprehensive genetic overview of different RDs in Pakistan. In this review, genetic data of syndromic and non-syndromic RD families from Pakistan has been collected. Out of the 132 genes known to be involved in non-syndromic RD, 35 different genes have been reported to be mutated in families of Pakistani origin. In the Pakistani RD families 90% of the mutations causing non-syndromic RD and all mutations causing syndromic forms of the disease have not been reported in other populations. Based on the current inventory of all Pakistani RD-associated gene defects, a cost-efficient allele-specific analysis of 11 RD-associated variants is proposed, which may capture up to 35% of the genetic causes of retinal dystrophy in Pakistan.03/2014; 5(1):176-95. DOI:10.3390/genes5010176
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ABSTRACT: Recent advances in technology have greatly increased our ability to identify genetic variants in individuals with retinal disease. However, determining which are likely to be pathogenic remains a challenging task. Using a transgenic coneless (cl) mouse model, together with rodless (rd/rd) and rodless/coneless (rd/rd cl) mice, we have characterised patterns of gene expression in the rod and cone photoreceptors at a genome-wide level. We examined the expression of >27,000 genes in the mice lacking rods, cones or both and compared them with wild type animals. We identified a list of 418 genes with highly significant changes in expression in one or more of the transgenic strains. Pathway analysis confirmed that expected Gene Ontology terms such as phototransduction were over-represented amongst these genes. However, many of these genes have no previously known function in the retina. Gene set enrichment analysis further demonstrated that the mouse orthologues of known human retinal disease genes were significantly enriched amongst those genes with decreased expression. Comparison of our data to human disease loci with no known causal genetic changes has highlighted genes with significant changes in expression making these strong candidates for further screening. These data add to the current literature through the utilisation of the specific cl and rd/rd cl models. Moreover, this study identifies genes that appear to be implicated in photoreceptor function thereby providing a valuable filter for variants identified by high-throughput sequencing in individuals with retinal disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Experimental Eye Research 01/2015; 132. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2015.01.002 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary cilia are sensory organelles present on most mammalian cells. The assembly and maintenance of primary cilia are facilitated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), a bidirectional protein trafficking along the cilium. Mutations in genes coding for IFT components have been associated with a group of diseases called ciliopathies. These genetic disorders can affect a variety of organs including the retina. Using whole exome sequencing in three families we identified mutations in IFT172 [Intraflagellar Transport 172 Homolog (Chlamydomonas)] that underlie an isolated retinal degeneration and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Extensive functional analyses of the identified mutations in cell culture, rat retina and in zebrafish demonstrated their hypomorphic or null nature. It has recently been reported that mutations in IFT172 cause a severe ciliopathy syndrome involving skeletal, renal, hepatic and retinal abnormalities (Jeune and Mainzer-Saldino syndromes). Here, we report for the first time that mutations in this gene can also lead to an isolated form of retinal degeneration. The functional data for the mutations can partially explain milder phenotypes; however the involvement of modifying alleles in the IFT172-associated phenotypes cannot be excluded. These findings expand the spectrum of disease associated with mutations in IFT172, and suggest that mutations in genes originally reported to be associated with syndromic ciliopathies should also be considered in subjects with non-syndromic retinal dystrophy.Human Molecular Genetics 08/2014; DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu441 · 6.68 Impact Factor