Vitamin D Biology in Heart Failure: Molecular Mechanisms and Systematic Review

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
Current drug targets (Impact Factor: 3.6). 01/2011; 12(1):29-41. DOI: 10.2174/138945011793591554
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vitamin D has recently been suggested as an important mediator of blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, including heart failure. In patient with heart failure, low vitamin D levels are associated with adverse outcome and correlate with established clinical correlates and biomarkers. Many precursor states of heart failure, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes are more prevalent in subjects with low vitamin D levels. Recent experimental data have provided clues how vitamin D might exert cardioprotective effects. The steroid hormone vitamin D regulates gene expression of many genes that play a prominent role in the progression of heart failure, such as cytokines and hormones. Specifically, vitamin D is a negative regulator of the hormone renin, the pivotal hormone of the renin-angiotensin system. Mechanistic insights were gained by studying mice deficient for the vitamin D receptor, which develop hypertension and adverse cardiac remodeling mediated via the renin-angiotensin system. Furthermore, vitamin D receptor is expressed in the heart and regulated under pro-hypertrophic stimuli and vitamin D as receptor has been associated with the expression of other hypertrophic genes such as natriuretic peptides. So, epidemiological data and mechanistic studies have provided strong support for a potentially cardioprotective effect of vitamin D. It remains unclear if vitamin D supplementation is beneficial in preventing heart failure or if it could be a therapeutic addendum in the treatment of heart failure. This review summarizes current knowledge on vitamin D and its biology in heart failure.

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Available from: Laura Meems, May 01, 2014
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    • "Cardiac muscle is found to have vitamin D receptors (VDR) and it has been hypothesized that activation of VDR might have beneficial effects on cardiac function in animals [4] [21]. We did not see any association between Vitamin D levels and cardiac hypertrophy, which has been seen in some [22e24] but not all [25] studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease, but the possible effects of Vitamin D on cardiac structure and function are not well characterized. The correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and metabolic and cardiac echocardiographic parameters was studied in ARTEMIS study population including 831diabetic and 659 non-diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Low levels of Vitamin D were associated with high BMI (p < 0.001), high total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p < 0.001 for all) in both diabetics and non-diabetics. Among non-diabetic patients, low Vitamin D was also associated independently with elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.005). Low Vitamin D levels were independently associated with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (p < 0.005) and increased left atrial diameter (p < 0.03) measured by cardiac ultrasound by 2-dimensional echo. In the non-diabetic group, low Vitamin D levels were associated with impaired LV filling (high E/E') (p < 0.03) and low E/A mitral flow pattern measured by Doppler echocardiography (p < 0.05). Among diabetics, low Vitamin D levels were also related to increased LV end-systolic diameter (p < 0.05) and right ventricular diameter (p < 0.005). The association between LV diastolic filling (E/E') and Vitamin D levels was significant (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the commonly recognized risk factors of diastolic dysfunction in linear regression analysis. Low Vitamin D is associated with several major cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac structural changes including impaired systolic and diastolic function, which together may explain the association of low Vitamin D to worse cardiovascular outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 02/2015; 25(5). DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2015.02.005 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    • "(R.A. de Boer). vitamin D deficiency [2] [3]. We and others have reported that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a poor prognosis in HF [2] [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of the vitamin D-vitamin D receptor (VDR) axis has been shown to reduce blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Besides cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis is a key element of adverse cardiac remodeling. We hypothesized that activation of the VDR by paricalcitol would prevent fibrosis and LV diastolic dysfunction in an established murine model of cardiac remodeling. Mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce cardiac hypertrophy. Mice were treated with paricalcitol, losartan, or a combination of both for a period of four consecutive weeks. The fixed aortic constriction caused similar increase in blood pressure, both in untreated and paricalcitol- or losartan-treated mice. TAC significantly increased LV weight compared to sham operated animals (10.2±0.7 vs. 6.9±0.3mg/mm, p<0.05). Administration of either paricalcitol (10.5±0.7), losartan (10.8±0.4), or a combination of both (9.2±0.6) did not reduce LV weight. Fibrosis was significantly increased in mice undergoing TAC (5.9±1.0 vs. sham 2.4±0.8%, p<0.05). Treatment with losartan and paricalcitol reduced fibrosis (paricalcitol 1.6±0.3% and losartan 2.9±0.6%, both p<0.05 vs. TAC). This reduction in fibrosis in paricalcitol treated mice was associated with improved indices of LV contraction and relaxation, e.g. dPdtmax and dPdtmin and lower LV end diastolic pressure, and relaxation constant Tau. Also, treatment with paricalcitol and losartan reduced mRNA expression of ANP, fibronectin, collagen III and TIMP-1. Treatment with the selective VDR activator paricalcitol reduces myocardial fibrosis and preserves diastolic LV function due to pressure overload in a mouse model. This is associated with a reduced percentage of fibrosis and a decreased expression of ANP and several other tissue markers.
    The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 07/2012; 132(3-5):282-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.06.004 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    • "In our present study population, the prevalence of obesity was 37.5%, which might explain why vitamin D deficiency was so common. Vitamin D has also been suggested to be an important mediator of cardiovascular disease [25] [26] [27]. A recent multinational, placebocontrolled , double-blind trial showed that paricalcitol, a selective activator of VDR, lowers albuminuria in patients with T2D nephropathy, a population with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of diabetes in the French West Indies is three times higher than in mainland France. We aimed to assess the associations between vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk factors in Caribbean patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this cross-sectional study of 277 patients, 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured by radioimmunoassay. FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VDR gene were genotyped. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression were performed. The study included 76 patients of Indian descent and 201 patients of African descent. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was 42.6%. When patients were classified into groups with (G1) and without (G2) vitamin D deficiency, there were no significant differences in age, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and HbA(1c), although body mass index was significantly higher in G1. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased diastolic blood pressure and triglyceride levels, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<0.05). Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was decreased in patients carrying the f allele of FokI (OR: 0.52; P=0.02) and the aa genotype of ApaI (OR: 0.46; P=0.05). BsmI and TaqI SNPs were not associated with vitamin D deficiency. The rate of vitamin D deficiency was high in our T2D patients, and was associated with the VDR gene FokI and ApaI polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk profile. Measurements of vitamin D may help to detect T2D patients with cardiovascular risk, and VDR polymorphisms might explain why vitamin D deficiency is so frequently seen in some T2D patients.
    Diabetes & Metabolism 07/2011; 37(6):540-5. DOI:10.1016/j.diabet.2011.05.005 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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